Chapter 12 : Introduction

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Introduction, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818722/9781555818715_CH12-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818722/9781555818715_CH12-2.gif


The field of complementology has advanced remarkably in the past 2 decades, due to newly found connections between often subtle complement abnormalities and diverse diseases. This is reflected in the exponential growth of new publications and the development of novel therapeutics that were previously unavailable for treatment of patients with complement deficiencies or other abnormalities of the system (1). The interest in complement displayed by the pharmaceutical industry has been motivated not only by the desire to create therapeutics for patients with rare complement-mediated diseases but by the necessity to prevent undue adverse events caused by complement activation when new drugs or delivery systems are used . One of the first examples of this in humans was the development of an anaphylactoid response following the infusion of radiocontrast agents or exposure of blood to some of the early types of dialysis membranes that activated complement (2). Additional examples of complement activation by diverse compounds include liposomes, nanoparticles of various types, biologicals (mainly antibody based), and DNA- or RNA-based drugs such as phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (antisense) (3, 4). The term complement activation-related pseudoallergy, or CARPA, applies to some of these reactions (5).

Citation: Giclas P. 2016. Introduction, p 125-128. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch12
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Ricklin D, Lambris JD . 2013. Progress and trends in complement therapeutics. Adv Exp Med Biol 735 : 1 22.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
2. Craddock PR, Fehr J, Dalmasso AP, Brighan KL, Jacob HS . 1977. Hemodialysis leukopenia. Pulmonary vascular leukostasis resulting from complement activation by dialyzer cellophane membranes. J Clin Investig 59 : 879 888.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
3. Galbraith WM, Hobson WC, Giclas PC, Schechter PJ, Agrawal S . 1994. Complement activation and hemodynamic changes following intravenous administration of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides in the monkey. Antisense Res Dev 4 : 201 206.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
4. Henry SP, Jagels MA, Hugli TE, Manalili S, Geary RS, Giclas PC , et al 2014. Mechanism of alternative complement pathway dysregulation by a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide in monkey and human serum. Nucleic Acid Ther 24 : 326 335.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
5. Szebeni J . 2014. Complement activation-related pseudoallergy: a stress reaction in blood triggered by nanomedicines and biologicals. Mol Immunol 61 : 163 173.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
6. Donaldson VH, Evans RR . 1963. A biochemical abnormality in herediatry angioneurotic edema: absence of serum inhibitor of C′ 1-esterase. Am J Med 35 : 37 44.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
7. Rosen FS, Alper CA, Pensky J, Klemperer MR, Donaldson VH . 1971. Genetically determined heterogeneity of the C1 esterase inhibitor in patients with hereditary angioneurotic edema. J Clin Investig 50 : 2143 2149.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
8. Bowen T, Cicardi M, Farkas H, Bork K, Longhurst HJ, Zuraw B , et al 2010. 2010 International consensus algorithm for the diagnosis, therapy and management of hereditary angioedema. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 6 : 24.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
9. Zuraw BL, Bork K, Binkley KE, Banerji A, Christiansen SC, Castaldo A , et al 2012. Hereditary angioedema with normal C1 inhibitor function: consensus of an international expert panel. Allergy Asthma Proc 33( Suppl 1) : S145 S156.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
10. Bork K, Wulff K, Meinke P, Wagner N, Hardt J, Witzke G . 2011. A novel mutation in the coagulation factor 12 gene in subjects with hereditary angioedema and normal C1-inhibitor. Clin Immunol 141 : 31 35.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
11. Cicardi M, Aberer W, Banerji A, Bas M, Bernstein JA, Bork K , et al 2014. Classification, diagnosis, and approach to treatment for angioedema: consensus report from the Hereditary Angioedema International Working Group. Allergy 69 : 602 616.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
12. Edwards AO, Ritter R 3rd, Abel KJ, Manning A, Panhuysen C, Farrer LA . 2005. Complement factor H polymorphism and age-related macular degeneration. Science 308 : 421 424.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
13. Hageman GS, Anderson DH, Johnson LV, Hancox LS, Taiber AJ, Hardisty LI , et al 2005. A common haplotype in the complement regulatory gene factor H (HF1/CFH) predisposes individuals to age-related macular degeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102 : 7227 7232.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
14. Haines JL, Hauser MA, Schmidt S, Scott WK, Olson LM, Gallins P , et al 2005. Complement factor H variant increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Science 308 : 419 421.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
15. Atkinson JP, Frank MM . 2006. Bypassing complement: evolutionary lessons and future implications. J Clin Investig 116 : 1215 1218.[CrossRef].[PubMed]

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error