Chapter 38 : Cytokines: Diagnostic and Clinical Applications

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Many cytokines can be measured in the circulation via antibody-based detection protocols such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and multianalyte bead systems. These measurement systems are robust and adaptable to many different analytes, and thus the large-scale measurement of cytokines in the circulation in human populations and disease states is possible. The measurement of cytokines in the circulation may provide a unique window into the immune response and the biology of human immune-related diseases. Cytokines represent messages sent between cells of the immune system, and thus confer a great deal information about ongoing immune processes. It is attractive to think that by intercepting these messages, we may be able to gain valuable insights regarding human disease diagnosis, prognosis, and potential therapeutic avenues. In this chapter, we review some of the ways in which cytokines are applied to clinical medicine. While cytokines can also be detected in tissue, this requires a biopsy, and for the purpose of this chapter we focus our discussion on circulating cytokines.

Citation: Vashisht P, Niewold T. 2016. Cytokines: Diagnostic and Clinical Applications, p 357-364. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch38
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Image of FIGURE 1

Diagram illustrating the proposed cascade of IFN production in SLE, with SLE risk genes demonstrated in boxes within the cells. Viruses and immune complexes made from SLE-associated autoantibodies can stimulate both the TLR and cytosolic nucleic acid recognition systems. Multiple SLE risk genes are found in these pathways, resulting in augmented type I IFN production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. IFN is recognized by other cells in the immune system via the type I IFN receptor, and some SLE risk genes such as STAT4 are associated with greater IFN-induced gene expression. MAVS, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein; MyD88, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88; OPN, osteopontin.

Citation: Vashisht P, Niewold T. 2016. Cytokines: Diagnostic and Clinical Applications, p 357-364. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch38
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Anticytokine therapy in RA

Citation: Vashisht P, Niewold T. 2016. Cytokines: Diagnostic and Clinical Applications, p 357-364. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch38

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