Chapter 58 : Herpes Simplex Virus

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Herpes Simplex Virus, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818722/9781555818715_CH58-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818722/9781555818715_CH58-2.gif


Human infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) are common throughout the world. HSV infection can cause a variety of illnesses depending on the anatomic site infected, whether it is a primary or recurrent infection, and the immune status of the person infected. Persons at risk for serious or prolonged active HSV infection are those with eczema, severe burns, or immunosuppressive conditions, such as organ transplant patients or HIV-infected persons. Primary infection occurs in individuals who have not previously been infected with either HSV-1 or HSV-2. Primary infections may be subclinical or mild enough to be unrecognized in a majority of cases, whereas clinically apparent infections comprise a wide array of presentations, ranging from mild pharyngitis or cutaneous infections to severe generalized disease and, on rare occasions, death (1). HSV-1 has a greater propensity to cause oral infections and is typically acquired during childhood. The most frequent manifestation of primary HSV-1 infection in children is gingivostomatitis. Primary HSV-1 infection in adolescents and adults usually manifests as pharyngitis or tonsillitis. Conjunctivitis, keratitis, vesicular eruptions of the skin, herpes whitlow, and encephalitis occur much less frequently. While the most common manifestation of sexually acquired HSV-2 is genital disease, both HSV-2 and HSV-1 can cause genital infection. HSV is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease in developed countries. In recent years, HSV-1 has been more frequently implicated as the etiologic agent (1). Complications of HSV-2 infection include aseptic meningitis and other neurological complications, extragenital lesions, and disseminated infection. Neonatal herpes is caused by mother-to-child transmission of HSV-1 or HSV-2 , during the birth process, or during the neonatal period. Infants infected during delivery or postpartum present in one of three ways: (i) disease localized to the skin, eyes, or mouth; (ii) central nervous system disease with or without skin, eye, or mouth disease; or (iii) disseminated infection. HSV-1 seroprevalence in the United States declined about 7% from 1999 to 2004 and from 2005 to 2010, with roughly 60% of persons being HSV-1 seropositive among 40- to 49-year-olds (2). HSV-2 seroprevalence in the United States increased by more than 50% between the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s but then began to decline; in 2005 to 2010, the estimated seroprevalence was 25% in 40- to 49-year-olds (2).

Citation: Schmid D. 2016. Herpes Simplex Virus, p 550-555. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch58
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Roizman B, Knipe DM, Whitley RJ, . 2013. Herpes simplex virus, p 1823 1896. In Knipe DM, Howley PM (ed), Fields Virology, 6th ed. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
2. Bradley H, Markowitz LE, Gibson T, McQuillan GM . 2014. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2—United States, 1999-2010. J Infect Dis 209 : 325 333.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
3. Ashley RL, Corey L, . 1989. Herpes simplex virus, p 2651 317. In Schmidt NJ, Emmons RW (ed), Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial and Chlamydial Infections, 6th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
4. Bernstein MT, Stewart JA . 1971. Method for typing antisera to Herpesvirus hominis by indirect hemagglutination inhibition. Appl Microbiol 21 : 680 684.[PubMed]
5. Kulhanjian JA, Soroush V, Au DS, Bronzan RN, Yasukawa LL, Weylman LE, Arvin AM, Prober CG . 1992. Identification of women at unsuspected risk of primary infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 during pregnancy. N Engl J Med 326 : 916 920.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
6. Arvin AM, Prober CG, . 1999. Herpes simplex viruses, p 878 887. In Murphy PR, Baron EJ, Faller MA, Tenover EC, Yolken RH (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
7. Wald A, Huang ML, Carrell D, Selke S, Corey L . 2003. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA on mucosal surfaces: comparison with HSV isolation in cell culture. J Infect Dis 188 : 1345 1351.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
8. Cremer NE, Cossen CK, Hanson CV, Shell GR . 1982. Evaluation and reporting of enzyme immunoassay determinations of antibody to herpes simplex virus in sera and cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Microbiol 15 : 815 823.[PubMed]
9. Denes E, Labach C, Durox H, Adoukonou T, Weinbreck P, Magy L, Ranger-Rogez S . 2010. Intrathecal synthesis of specific antibodies as a marker of herpes simplex encephalitis in patients with negative PCR. Swiss Med Wkly 140 : w13107.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
10. Monteyne P, Albert F, Weissbrich B, Zardini E, Ciardi M, Cleator GM, Sindic CJ European Union Concerted Action on Virus Meningitis and Encephalitis. 1997. The detection of intrathecal synthesis of anti-herpes simplex IgG antibodies: comparison between an antigen-mediated immunoblotting technique and antibody index calculations. J Med Virol 53 : 324 331.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
11. Lee FK, Pereira L, Griffin C, Reid E, Nahmias A . 1986. A novel glycoprotein for detection of herpes simplex virus type 1-specific antibodies. J Virol Methods 14 : 111 118.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
12. Schmid DS, Brown DR, Nisenbaum R, Burke RL, Alexander D, Ashley R, Pellett PE, Reeves WC . 1999. Limits in reliability of glycoprotein G-based type-specific serologic assays for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. J Clin Microbiol 37 : 376 379.[PubMed]
13. Brown ZA, Selke S, Zeh J, Kopelman J, Maslow A, Ashley RL, Watts DH, Berry S, Herd M, Corey L . 1997. The acquisition of herpes simplex virus during pregnancy. N Engl J Med 337 : 509 515.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
14. Hutchins SS, Sulemana I, Heilpern KL, Schaffner W, Wax G, Lerner EB, Watson B, Baltimore R, Waltenburg RA, Aronsky D, Coffin S, Ng G, Craig AS, Behrman A, Meek J, Sherman E, Chavez SS, Harpaz R, Schmid S . 2008. Performance of an algorithm for assessing smallpox risk among patients with rashes that may be confused with smallpox. Clin Infect Dis 46( Suppl 3) : S195 S203.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
15. Hanrahan JA, Jakubowycz M, Davis BR . 2003. A smallpox false alarm. N Engl J Med 348 : 467 468, discussion 467–468.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
16. Markoulatos P, Georgopoulou A, Kotsovassilis C, Karabogia-Karaphillides P, Spyrou N . 2000. Detection and typing of HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Lab Anal 14 : 214 219.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
17. O'Sullivan CE, Aksamit AJ, Harrington JR, Harmsen WS, Mitchell PS, Patel R . 2003. Clinical spectrum and laboratory characteristics associated with detection of herpes simplex virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid. Mayo Clin Proc 78 : 1347 1352.[CrossRef]
18. Athmanathan S, Reddy SB, Nutheti R, Rao GN . 2002. Comparison of an immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line with Vero cells in the isolation of Herpes simplex virus-1 for the laboratory diagnosis of Herpes simplex keratitis. BMC Ophthalmol 2 : 3.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
19. Nicoll S, Brass A, Cubie HA . 2001. Detection of herpes viruses in clinical samples using real-time PCR. J Virol Methods 96 : 25 31.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
20. Bergström T, Trybala E . 1996. Antigenic differences between HSV-1 and HSV-2 glycoproteins and their importance for type-specific serology. Intervirology 39 : 176 184.
21. Ashley RL . 1998. Type-specific antibodies to HSV-1 and -2: review of methodology. Herpes 5 : 33 38.
22. Ashley RL, Militoni J, Lee F, Nahmias A, Corey L . 1988. Comparison of Western blot (immunoblot) and glycoprotein G-specific immunodot enzyme assay for detecting antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in human sera. J Clin Microbiol 26 : 662 667.[PubMed]
23. Lee FK, Coleman RM, Pereira L, Bailey PD, Tatsuno M, Nahmias AJ . 1985. Detection of herpes simplex virus type 2-specific antibody with glycoprotein G. J Clin Microbiol 22 : 641 644.[PubMed]
24. Slomka MJ, Ashley RL, Cowan FM, Cross A, Brown DW . 1995. Monoclonal antibody blocking tests for the detection of HSV-1- and HSV-2-specific humoral responses: comparison with western blot assay. J Virol Methods 55 : 27 35.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
25. Ho DWT, Field PR, Sjögren-Jansson E, Jeansson S, Cunningham AL . 1992. Indirect ELISA for the detection of HSV-2 specific IgG and IgM antibodies with glycoprotein G (gG-2). J Virol Methods 36 : 249 264.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
26. Hashido M, Lee FK, Inouye S, Kawana T . 1997. Detection of herpes simplex virus type-specific antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on glycoprotein G. J Med Virol 53 : 319 323.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
27. Morrow RA, Friedrich D, Krantz E, Wald A . 2004. Development and use of a type-specific antibody avidity test based on herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein G. Sex Transm Dis 31 : 508 515.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
28. Ashley RL . 2001. Sorting out the new HSV type specific antibody tests. Sex Transm Infect 77 : 232 237.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
29. Ashley RL, Eagleton M, Pfeiffer N . 1999. Ability of a rapid serology test to detect seroconversion to herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein G soon after infection. J Clin Microbiol 37 : 1632 1633.[PubMed]
30. Eis-Hübinger AM, Däumer M, Matz B, Schneweis KE . 1999. Evaluation of three glycoprotein G2-based enzyme immunoassays for detection of antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 in human sera. J Clin Microbiol 37 : 1242 1246.
31. Groen J, Van Dijk G, Niesters HGM, Van Der Meijden WI, Osterhaus ADME . 1998. Comparison of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and one rapid immunoblot assay for detection of herpes simplex virus type 2-specific antibodies in serum. J Clin Microbiol 36 : 845 847.[PubMed]
32. Sánchez-Martínez D, Schmid DS, Whittington W, Brown D, Reeves WC, Chatterjee S, Whitley RJ, Pellett PE . 1991. Evaluation of a test based on baculovirus-expressed glycoprotein G for detection of herpes simplex virus type-specific antibodies. J Infect Dis 164 : 1196 1199.[CrossRef]
33. Ngo TD, Laeyendecker O, La H, Hogrefe W, Morrow RA, Quinn TC . 2008. Use of commercial enzyme immunoassays to detect antibodies to the herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein G in a low-risk population in Hanoi, Vietnam. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15 : 382 384.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
34. Turner KR, Wong EH, Kent CK, Klausner JD . 2002. Serologic herpes testing in the real world: validation of new type-specific serologic herpes simplex virus tests in a public health laboratory. Sex Transm Dis 29 : 422 425.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
35. Shevlin E, Morrow RA . 2014. Comparative performance of the Uni-Gold™ HSV-2 Rapid: a point-of-care HSV-2 diagnostic test in unselected sera from a reference laboratory. J Clin Virol 61 : 378 381.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
36. Ashley RL, Dalessio J, Dragavon J, Koutsky LA, Lee FK, Nahmias AJ, Stevens CE, Holmes KK, Corey L . 1993. Underestimation of HSV-2 seroprevalence in a high-risk population by microneutralization assay. Sex Transm Dis 20 : 230 235.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
37. Ashley RL, Dalessio J, Sekulovich RE . 1997. A novel method to assay herpes simplex virus neutralizing antibodies using BHKICP6LacZ-5 (ELVIS) cells. Viral Immunol 10 : 213 220.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
38. Mbopi-Kéou FX, Bélec L, Dalessio J, Legoff J, Grésenguet G, Mayaud P, Brown DW, Morrow RA . 2003. Cervicovaginal neutralizing antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) in women seropositive for HSV Types 1 and 2. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10 : 388 393.
39. Whitbeck JC, Muggeridge MI, Rux AH, Hou W, Krummenacher C, Lou H, van Geelen A, Eisenberg RJ, Cohen GH . 1999. The major neutralizing antigenic site on herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D overlaps a receptor-binding domain. J Virol 73 : 9879 9890.[PubMed]
40. Herrera-Ortiz A, Conde-Glez CJ, Vergara-Ortega DN, García-Cisneros S, Olamendi-Portugal ML, Sánchez-Alemán MA . 2013. Avidity of antibodies against HSV-2 and risk to neonatal transmission among Mexican pregnant women. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2013 : 140142.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
41. Morrow RA, Friedrich D . 2003. Inaccuracy of certain commercial enzyme immunoassays in diagnosing genital infections with herpes simplex virus types 1 or 2. Am J Clin Pathol 120 : 839 844.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
42. Lindsay MK . 2006. HSV neutralizing antibodies further refinement in preventing neonatal Herpes infection. Am J Obstet Gynecol 195 : 4 6.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
43. Posavad CM, Magaret AS, Zhao L, Mueller DE, Wald A, Corey L . 2011. Development of an interferon-gamma ELISPOT assay to detect human T cell responses to HSV-2. Vaccine 29 : 7058 7066.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
44. Schmid DS, Thieme ML, Gary HE Jr, Reeves WC . 1997. Characterization of T cell responses to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) using a TNF-β ELISpot cytokine assay. Arch Virol 142 : 1659 1671.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
45. Hashido M, Kawana T . 1997. Herpes simplex virus-specific IgM, IgA and IgG subclass antibody responses in primary and nonprimary genital herpes patients. Microbiol Immunol 41 : 415 420.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
46. Hashido M, Inouye S, Kawana T . 1997. Differentiation of primary from nonprimary genital herpes infections by a herpes simplex virus-specific immunoglobulin G avidity assay. J Clin Microbiol 35 : 1766 1768.[PubMed]

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error