Chapter 64 : Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Viruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Viruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818722/9781555818715_CH64-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818722/9781555818715_CH64-2.gif


Measles virus, also called rubeola, and mumps virus are both RNA viruses of the family , subfamily ; measles is in the genus, and mumps virus is in the genus. Rubella virus is also an RNA virus but is a member of the family. These three viruses, despite differences in their families and genera, are often considered together because the epidemiology of the infections they produce in humans and the preventive measures used against them are similar for all three. Measles and rubella, both of which produce rash-associated illness, and mumps, which typically infects the parotid glands, were all included among the expected illnesses of childhood in the United States prior to the introduction of vaccination programs in the late 1960s. Measles epidemics involving 500,000 to 700,000 cases occurred every 2 years (1), approximately 180,000 cases of mumps were reported annually (2), and approximately 58,000 rubella cases that included 60 congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) cases (3) were seen annually.

Citation: Leland D, Relich R. 2016. Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Viruses, p 610-619. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch64
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Bellini WJ, Rota PA, . 1999. Measles (rubeola) virus, p 603 621. In Lennette EH, Smith TF (ed), Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections, 3rd ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York.
2. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). 1983. Mumps—United States, 1980–1983. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 32 : 545547.[PubMed]
3. Reef SE, Frey TK, Theall K, Abernathy E, Burnett CL, Icenogle J, McCauley MM, Wharton M . 2002. The changing epidemiology of rubella in the 1990s: on the verge of elimination and new challenges for control and prevention. JAMA 287 : 464 472.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
4. Watson JC, Hadler SC, Dykewicz CA, Reef S, Phillips L Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 1998. Measles, mumps, and rubella—vaccine use and strategies for elimination of measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome and control of mumps: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 47( RR-8) : 1 57.[PubMed]
5. Orenstein WA, Papania MJ, Wharton ME . 2004. Measles elimination in the United States. J Infect Dis 189( Suppl 1) : S1 S3.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
6. Hutchins SS, Papania MJ, Amler R, Maes EF, Grabowsky M, Bromberg K, Glasglow V, Speed T, Bellini WJ, Orenstein WA . 2004. Evaluation of the measles clinical case definition. J Infect Dis 189( Suppl 1) : S153 S159.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Global Health. Why reducing measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) worldwide is important. http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/measles/why/. Viewed 29 August 2013.
8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2012. Measles—United States, 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 61 : 253257.[PubMed]
9. Public Health England. Measles cases in England: January to March 2013. www.hpa.org.uk/webc/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_c/1317138802384 (select “View item you were looking for”).
10. Bellini WJ, Rota JS, Lowe LE, Katz RS, Dyken PR, Zaki SR, Shieh W-J, Rota PA . 2005. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: more cases of this fatal disease are prevented by measles immunization than was previously recognized. J Infect Dis 192 : 1686 1693.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
11. Szenborn L, Tischer A, Pejcz J, Rudkowski Z, Wójcik M . 2003. Passive acquired immunity against measles in infants born to naturally infected and vaccinated mothers. Med Sci Monit 9 : CR541 CR546.[PubMed]
12. Glick C, Feldman S, Norris MR, Butler J . 1998. Measles, mumps, and rubella serology in premature infants weighing less than 1,000 grams. South Med J 91 : 159 160.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
13. Dine MS, Hutchins SS, Thomas A, Williams I, Bellini WJ, Redd SC . 2004. Persistence of vaccine-induced antibody to measles 26-33 years after vaccination. J Infect Dis 189( Suppl 1) : S123 S130.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2007. WHO Manual for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Measles and Rubella Virus Infection, 2nd ed. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/70211. Accessed 30 August 2013.
15. Rota PA, Brown KE, Hübschen JM, Muller CP, Icenogle J, Chen M-H, Bankamp B, Kessler JR, Brown DW, Bellini WJ, Featherstone D . 2011. Improving global virologic surveillance for measles and rubella. J Infect Dis 204( Suppl 1) : S506 S513.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
16. Ozoemena LC, Minor PD, Afzal MA . 2004. Comparative evaluation of measles virus specific TaqMan PCR and conventional PCR using synthetic and natural RNA templates. J Med Virol 73 : 79 84.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
17. El Mubarak HS, De Swart RL, Osterhaus AD, Schutten M . 2005. Development of a semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR for the detection of measles virus. J Clin Virol 32 : 313 317.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
18. Hummel KB, Lowe L, Bellini WJ, Rota PA . 2006. Development of quantitative gene-specific real-time RT-PCR assays for the detection of measles virus in clinical specimens. J Virol Methods 132 : 166 173.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
19. Thomas B, Beard S, Jin L, Brown KE, Brown DW . 2007. Development and evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for rapid identification and semi-quantitation of measles virus. J Med Virol 79 : 1587 1592.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
20. Hübschen JM, Kremer JR, De Landtsheer S, Muller CP . 2008. A multiplex TaqMan PCR assay for the detection of measles and rubella virus. J Virol Methods 149 : 246 250.[CrossRef]
21. Jenkerson SA, Beller M, Middaugh JP, Erdman DD . 1995. False positive rubeola IgM tests. N Engl J Med 332 : 1103 1104.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
22. Thomas HI, Barrett E, Hesketh LM, Wynne A, Morgan-Capner P . 1999. Simultaneous IgM reactivity by EIA against more than one virus in measles, parvovirus B19 and rubella infection. J Clin Virol 14 : 107 118.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
23. Mercader S, Garcia P, Bellini WJ . 2012. Measles virus IgG avidity assay for use in classification of measles vaccine failure in measles elimination settings. Clin Vaccine Immunol 19 : 1810 1817.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
24. Hickman CJ, Hyde TB, Sowers SB, Mercader S, McGrew M, Williams NJ, Beeler JA, Audet S, Kiehl B, Nandy R, Tamin A, Bellini WJ . 2011. Laboratory characterization of measles virus infection in previously vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. J Infect Dis 204( Suppl 1) : S549 S558.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
25. Bellini WJ, Icenogle JP, . 2015. Measles and rubella viruses, p 1519 1535. In Jorgensen JH, Pfaller MA, Carroll KC, Funke G, Landry ML, Richter SS, Warnock DW (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 11th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
26. Black FL, . 1997. Measles and mumps, p 688 692. In Rose NR, de Macario EC, Folds JD, Lane HC, Nakamura RM (ed), Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
27. Takao S, Shigemoto N, Shimazu Y, Tanizawa Y, Fukuda S, Matsuo T . 2012. Detection of exanthematic viruses using a TaqMan real-time PCR assay panel in patients with clinically diagnosed or suspected measles. Jpn J Infect Dis 65 : 444 448.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
28. Condorelli F, Scalia G, Stivala A, Gallo R, Marino A, Battaglini CM, Castro A . 1994. Detection of immunoglobulin G to measles virus, rubella virus, and mumps virus in serum samples and in microquantities of whole blood dried on filter paper. J Virol Methods 49 : 25 36.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
29. Helfand RF, Keyserling HL, Williams I, Murray A, Mei J, Moscatiello C, Icenogle J, Bellini WJ . 2001. Comparative detection of measles and rubella IgM and IgG derived from filter paper blood and serum samples. J Med Virol 65 : 751 757.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
30. Chakravarti A, Rawat D, Yadav S . 2003. Whole blood samples as an alternative to serum for detection of immunity to measles virus by ELISA. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 47 : 563 567.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
31. El Mubarak HS, Yüksel S, Mustafa OM, Ibrahim SA, Osterhaus AD, de Swart RL . 2004. Surveillance of measles in the Sudan using filter paper blood samples. J Med Virol 73 : 624 630.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
32. Riddell MA, Leydon JA, Catton MG, Kelly HA . 2002. Detection of measles virus-specific immunoglobulin M in dried venous blood samples by using a commercial enzyme immunoassay. J Clin Microbiol 40 : 5 9.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
33. Health, Education, and Welfare. 1965. Public Health Monograph No. 74—Standardized Diagnostic Complement Fixation Method and Adaptation to Micro Test. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Health Resources Administration, Hyattsville, MD.
34. Hawkes RA, . 1979. General principles underlying laboratory diagnosis of viral infections, p 3 48. In Lennette EH, Schmidt NJ (ed), Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial and Chlamydial Infections, 5th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
35. Stark LM, Lewis AL, . 1992. Complement fixation test, p 203 228. In Specter S, Lancz G (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, 2nd ed. Elsevier, New York, NY.
36. Ballew HC, . 1992. Neutralization, p 229 241. In Specter S, Lancz G (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, 2nd ed. Elsevier, New York, NY.
37. Leland DS, . 2002. Measles and mumps, p 682 686. In Rose NR, Hamilton RG, Detrick B (ed), Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 6th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
38. Helfand RF, Kebede S, Gary HE, Beyene H, Bellini WJ . 1999. Timing of development of measles-specific immunoglobulin M and G after primary measles vaccination. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 6: 178- 180.30.[PubMed]
39. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). 1989. Mumps prevention. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 38 : 388392, 397–400.[PubMed]
40. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004. Summary of notifiable diseases, US, 2002. [Online.] http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5153a1.htm.
41. Dayan GH, Quinlisk MP, Parker AA, Barskey AE, Harris ML, Schwartz JM, Hunt K, Finley CG, Leschinsky DP, O'Keefe AL, Clayton J, Kightlinger LK, Dietle EG, Berg J, Kenyon CL, Goldstein ST, Stokley SK, Redd SB, Rota PA, Rota J, Bi D, Roush SW, Bridges CB, Santibanez TA, Parashar U, Bellini WJ, Seward JF . 2008. Recent resurgence of mumps in the United States. N Engl J Med 358 : 1580 1589.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
42. Kutty PK, Kruszon-Moran DM, Dayan GH, Alexander JP, Williams NJ, Garcia PE, Hickman CJ, McQuillan GM, Bellini WJ . 2010. Seroprevalence of antibody to mumps virus in the US population, 1999–2004. J Infect Dis 202 : 667 674.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
43. Barskey AE, Schulte C, Rosen JB, Handschur EF, Rausch-Phung E, Doll MK, Cummings KP, Alleyne EO, High P, Lawler J, Apostolou A, Blog D, Zimmerman CM, Montana B, Harpaz R, Hickman CJ, Rota PA, Rota JS, Bellini WJ, Gallagher KM . 2012. Mumps outbreak in Orthodox Jewish communities in the United States. N Engl J Med 367 : 1704 1713.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
44. Cortese MM, Barskey AE, Tegtmeier GE, Zhang C, Ngo L, Kyaw MH, Baughman AL, Menitove JE, Hickman CJ, Bellini WJ, Dayan GH, Hansen GR, Rubin S . 2011. Mumps antibody levels among students before a mumps outbreak: in search of a correlate of immunity. J Infect Dis 204 : 1413 1422.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
45. Poggio GP, Rodriguez C, Cisterna D, Freire MC, Cello J . 2000. Nested PCR for rapid detection of mumps virus in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with neurological diseases. J Clin Microbiol 38 : 274 278.[PubMed]
46. Pabbaraju K, Tokaryk KL, Wong S, Fox JD . 2008. Comparison of the Luminex xTAG respiratory viral panel with in-house nucleic acid amplification tests for diagnosis of respiratory virus infections. J Clin Microbiol 46 : 3056 3062.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
47. Afzal MA, Buchanan J, Dias JA, Cordeiro M, Bentley ML, Shorrock CA, Minor PD . 1997. RT-PCR based diagnosis and molecular characterisation of mumps viruses derived from clinical specimens collected during the 1996 mumps outbreak in Portugal. J Med Virol 52 : 349 353.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
48. Bitsko RH, Cortese MM, Dayan GH, Rota PA, Lowe L, Iversen SC, Bellini WJ . 2008. Detection of RNA of mumps virus during an outbreak in a population with a high level of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine coverage. J Clin Microbiol 46 : 1101 1103.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
49. Latner DR, McGrew M, Williams N, Lowe L, Werman R, Warnock E, Gallagher K, Doyle P, Smole S, Lett S, Cocoros N, DeMaria A, Konomi R, Brown CJ, Rota PA, Bellini WJ, Hickman CJ . 2011. Enzyme-linked immunospot assay detection of mumps-specific antibody-secreting B cells as an alternative method of laboratory diagnosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol 18 : 35 42.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
50. Leland D, . 2011. Parainfluenza and mumps viruses, p 1347 1356. In Versalovic J, Carroll KC, Funke G, Jorgensen JH, Landry ML, Warnock DW (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th ed, vol 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
51. Bellini WJ, Icenogle JP, . 2011. Measles and rubella viruses, p 1372 1387. In Versalovic J, Carroll KC, Funke G, Jorgensen JH, Landry ML, Warnock DW (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th ed, vol 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
52. Lau KK, Lai ST, Lai JY, Yan WW, So TMK, Wong TY . 1998. Acute encephalitis complicating rubella. Hong Kong Med J 4 : 325 328.[PubMed]
53. Chang DI, Park JH, Chung KC . 1997. Encephalitis and polyradiculoneuritis following rubella virus infection—a case report. J Korean Med Sci 12 : 168 170.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
54. Morse EE, Zinkham WH, Jackson DP . 1966. Thrombocytopenic purpura following rubella infection in children and adults. Arch Intern Med 117 : 573 579.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
55. World Health Organization. 2013. Reported cases of selected vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/timeseries/tsincidencerubella.html. Accessed 25 September 2013.
56. McLean H, Redd S, Abernathy E, Icenogle J, Wallace G . 2012. Manual for the Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, 5th ed. Chapter 15: Congenital rubella syndrome. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/surv-manual/chpt15-crs.html. Accessed 30 September 2013.
57. McLean H, Redd S, Abernathy E, Icenogle J, Wallace G . 2012. Manual for the Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, 5th ed. Chapter 14: Rubella. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/surv-manual/chpt14-rubella.html. Viewed 30 September 2013.
58. Abbott GG, Safford JW, MacDonald RG, Craine MC, Applegren RR . 1990. Development of automated immunoassays for immune status screening and serodiagnosis of rubella virus infection. J Virol Methods 27 : 227 239.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
59. Best JM, Palmer SJ, Morgan-Capner P, Hodgson J . 1984. A comparison of Rubazyme-M and MACRIA for the detection of rubella-specific IgM. J Virol Methods 8 : 99 109.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
60. Stewart GL, Parkman PD, Hopps HE, Douglas RD, Hamilton JP, Meyer HM Jr. 1967. Rubella-virus hemagglutination-inhibition test. N Engl J Med 276 : 554 557.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
61. Mori N, Motegi Y, Shimamura Y, Ezaki T, Natsumeda T, Yonekawa T, Ota Y, Notomi T, Nakayama T . 2006. Development of a new method for diagnosis of rubella virus infection by reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification. J Clin Microbiol 44 : 3268 3273.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
62. Brown GC, Maassab HF, Veronelli JA, Francis TJ Jr. 1964. Rubella antibodies in human serum: detection by the indirect fluorescent-antibody technique. Science 145 : 943 945.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
63. Mahony JR, . 2006. Rubella virus, p 712 718. In Detrick B, Hamilton RG, Folds JD (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
64. Kurtz JB, Anderson MJ . 1985. Cross-reactions in rubella and parvovirus specific IgM tests. Lancet 2 : 1356.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
65. Morgan-Capner P . 1991. False positive tests for rubella-specific IgM. Pediatr Infect Dis J 10 : 415 416.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
66. Bellini WJ, Helfand RF . 2003. The challenges and strategies for laboratory diagnosis of measles in an international setting. J Infect Dis 187( Suppl 1) : S283 S290.[CrossRef].[PubMed]

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error