Chapter 82 : Immunological Methods in the Diagnostic Allergy Clinical and Research Laboratory

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Nearly 50 years have passed since IgE was identified as the reagin or serum antibody that sensitizes skin mast cells and circulating basophils and mediates immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions in humans (1, 2). Since IgE's identification, the clinical immunology laboratory has provided the clinician with analytical measurements that aid in the diagnosis, management, and research of the natural history and epidemiology of IgE-mediated diseases. Total and allergen-specific IgE antibody are the primary analytes measured clinically to support the diagnosis of human allergic disease. Antigen-specific IgG antibodies are measured as a research analyte to identify chronic allergen exposure and to monitor potential blocking antibody activity following immunotherapy.

Citation: Hamilton R. 2016. Immunological Methods in the Diagnostic Allergy Clinical and Research Laboratory, p 795-800. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch82
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1. Bennich HH, Ishizaka K, Johansson SGO, Rowe DS, Stanworth DR, Terry WD . 1968. Immunoglobulin E: a new class of human immunoglobulin. Immunology 15 : 323 324.[PubMed]
2. Saini SS, MacGlashan DW Jr, Sterbinsky SA, Togias A, Adelman DC, Lichtenstein LM, Bochner BS . 1999. Down-regulation of human basophil IgE and FC epsilon RI alpha surface densities and mediator release by anti-IgE-infusions is reversible in vitro and in vivo. J Immunol 162 : 5624 5630.[PubMed]
3. Barbee RA, Halonen M, Lebowitz M, Burrows B . 1981. Distribution of IgE in a community population sample: correlations with age, sex, and allergen skin test reactivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 68 : 106 111.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
4. Martins TB, Bandhauer ME, Bunker AM, Roberts WL, Hill HR . 2014. New childhood and adult reference intervals for total IgE. J Allergy Clin Immunol 133 : 589 591.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
5. Paterniti MO, Breslin LM, Courneya JP, Sterba PM, Hamilton RG, Macglashan DW Jr, Saini SS . 2013. Differences in effects of Omalizumab on late-phase responses to allergen challenge in the skin and nose at the time of basophil hyporesponsiveness. J Invest Dermatol 134 : 1743 1744.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
6. Hamilton RG, . 2006. Immunological methods in the diagnostic allergy clinical and research laboratory, p 955 963. In Detrick B, Hamilton RG, Folds JD (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
7. Hamilton RG . 2010. Proficiency survey-based evaluation of clinical total and allergen-specific IgE assay performance. Arch Pathol Lab Med 134 : 975 982.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
8. Valenta R, Lidholm J, Niederberger V, Hayek B, Kraft D, Grönlund H . 1999. The recombinant allergen-based concept of component-resolved diagnostics and immunotherapy (CRD and CRIT). Clin Exp Allergy 29 : 896 904.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
9. Hamilton RG . 2014. Allergic sensitization is a key risk factor for but not synonymous with allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 134 : 360 361.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
10. Sampson HA . 2001. Utility of food-specific IgE concentrations in predicting symptomatic food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107 : 891 896.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
11. Golden DBK, Lawrence ID, Hamilton RH, Kagey-Sobotka A, Valentine MD, Lichtenstein LM . 1992. Clinical correlation of the venom-specific IgG antibody level during maintenance venom immunotherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 90 : 386 393.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
12. Shamji MH, Ljørring C, Francis JN, Calderon MA, Larché M, Kimber I, Frew AJ, Ipsen H, Lund K, Würtzen PA, Durham SR . 2012. Functional rather than immunoreactive levels of IgG4 correlate closely with clinical response to grass pollen immunotherapy. Allergy 67 : 217 226.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
13. Varga EM, Francis JN, Zach MS, Klunker S, Aberer W, Durham SR . 2009. Time course of serum inhibitory activity for facilitated allergen-IgE binding during bee venom immunotherapy in children. Clin Exp Allergy 39 : 1353 1357.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
14. Shamji MH, Ljørring C, Würtzen PA . 2013. Predictive biomarkers of clinical efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy: how to proceed. Immunotherapy 5 : 203 206.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
15. Wide L, Bennich H, Johansson SG . 1967. Diagnosis of allergy by an in-vitro test for allergen antibodies. Lancet 2 : 1105 1107.[PubMed]
16. Matsson P, Hamilton RG . 2009. Evaluation methods and analytical performance characteristics of immunological assays for human IgE antibody of defined allergen specificities: Guideline, National Committee on Clinical Laboratory Standards 1/LA20-A.
17. Thorpe SJ, Heath A, Fox B, Patel D, Egner W . 2014. The 3rd International Standard for serum IgE: international collaborative study to evaluate a candidate preparation. Clin Chem Lab Med 52 : 1283 1289.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
18. Hiller R, Laffer S, Harwanegg C, Huber M, Schmidt WM, Twardosz A, Barletta B, Becker WM, Blaser K, Breiteneder H, Chapman M, Crameri R, Duchêne M, Ferreira F, Fiebig H, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, King TP, Kleber-Janke T, Kurup VP, Lehrer SB, Lidholm J, Müller U, Pini C, Reese G, Scheiner O, Scheynius A, Shen HD, Spitzauer S, Suck R, Swoboda I, Thomas W, Tinghino R, Van Hage-Hamsten M, Virtanen T, Kraft D, Müller MW, Valenta R . 2002. Microarrayed allergen molecules: diagnostic gatekeepers for allergy treatment. FASEB J 16 : 414 416.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
19. Hamilton RG, Sobotka AK, Adkinson NF Jr . 1979. Solid phase radioimmunoassay for quantitation of antigen-specific IgG in human sera with 125I-protein A from Staphylococcus aureus. J Immunol 122 : 1073 1079.[PubMed]
20. Butler JE, Hamilton RG, . 1981. Quantitation of specific antibodies: methods of expression, standards, solid phase considerations and specific applications, chapter 9. In Butler JE (ed), Immunochemistry of Solid Phase Immunoassays. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.


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Clinical conditions in which serological determination of IgE and IgG antibodies may be useful in the differential diagnosis

Citation: Hamilton R. 2016. Immunological Methods in the Diagnostic Allergy Clinical and Research Laboratory, p 795-800. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch82

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