Chapter 2.3.1 : Antibody-Based Technologies for Environmental Biodetection

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Immunoassay methods for environmental pathogen and toxin detection are well established with formats including lateral flow devices, standard ELISAs, microarray platforms, and biosensor devices. In general, immunoassays provide rapid assay times relative to other conventional methods such as colony counting and PCR approaches. The development of recombinant antibody technologies to produce antibodies with enhanced binding affinities will lead to immunoassays with better sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. The development of alternative affinity reagents, such as aptamers, engineered proteins and peptides, will provide a greater repertoire of affinity reagents to develop novel immunoassays. Recently, multiplexed assays for the detection of foodborne and waterborne pathogens and toxins have been developed using planar and bead-based microarray approaches. Because environmental pathogens are mostly present in very low numbers, a highly sensitive detection method is necessary. In addition, real-time detection is requisite. Biosensors have the potential to address both of these requirements. Indeed, biosensors are the fastest growing technology for pathogen detection. Integration of biosensors into environmental and food safety monitoring systems is likely to increase in the coming years potentially leading to the development of novel methods that are capable of providing the necessary sensitivity and assay speed to replace the current standards.

Citation: Baird C, Varnum S. 2016. Antibody-Based Technologies for Environmental Biodetection, p 2.3.1-1-2.3.1-12. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.3.1
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Image of FIGURE 1

Typical immunoassay formats. (a) competitive immunoassay, (b) noncompetitive or immunometric immunoassay. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.3.1.f1

Citation: Baird C, Varnum S. 2016. Antibody-Based Technologies for Environmental Biodetection, p 2.3.1-1-2.3.1-12. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.3.1
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Image of FIGURE 2

Antibody structures including antibody molecule, Fab, Fab, and ScFv molecules. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.3.1.f2

Citation: Baird C, Varnum S. 2016. Antibody-Based Technologies for Environmental Biodetection, p 2.3.1-1-2.3.1-12. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.3.1
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