Chapter 2.6.1 : Water Sampling and Processing Techniques for Public Health–Related Microbes

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This chapter describes options and considerations for choosing water sampling and processing techniques to enable testing for microbes of public health relevance, including pathogens and microbial indicators of fecal contamination. The framework for the discussion draws relationships between investigation goals, conditions and the selection of sampling techniques. Considerations include identifying target microbes, downstream analytical methods, anticipated water quality, acceptable method detection limits, and application of discrete versus composite sampling. Small-volume and large-volume sampling techniques are discussed for application to a wide range of water types, including drinking water, ground water, surface water, recreational water, and marine water. The chapter describes and compares alternative techniques for sample collection and processing for viruses, bacteria, and parasites, as well as identifying techniques that to capture of multiple microbe types. Field sampling techniques are discussed, as well as laboratory-based sample processing techniques to concentrate water samples for analysis. Issues related to sample quality are addressed as they relate to processing inefficiencies and potential for inhibition of analytical procedures.

Citation: Hill V. 2016. Water Sampling and Processing Techniques for Public Health–Related Microbes, p 2.6.1-1-2.6.1-16. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.1
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Image of FIGURE 1

Range of filtration processes for collecting microbes and other materials by physical size exclusion.doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.1.f1

Citation: Hill V. 2016. Water Sampling and Processing Techniques for Public Health–Related Microbes, p 2.6.1-1-2.6.1-16. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.1
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Image of FIGURE 2

Schematic of continuous flow centrifugation device (Courtesy of: Scientific Methods Inc). doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.1.f2

Citation: Hill V. 2016. Water Sampling and Processing Techniques for Public Health–Related Microbes, p 2.6.1-1-2.6.1-16. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.1
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Image of FIGURE 3

Schematic of tangential flow hollow fiber ultrafiltration (Reprinted from ref. 48, with permission).doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.1.f3

Citation: Hill V. 2016. Water Sampling and Processing Techniques for Public Health–Related Microbes, p 2.6.1-1-2.6.1-16. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.1
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Image of FIGURE 4

Schematic of dead-end ultrafiltration for filtering water from (a) nonpressurized water bodies and (b) pressurized water systems. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.1.f4

Citation: Hill V. 2016. Water Sampling and Processing Techniques for Public Health–Related Microbes, p 2.6.1-1-2.6.1-16. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.1
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Image of FIGURE 5

Schematic of filtration set-up using an electropositive cartridge for recovery of viruses from water (Reprinted from ref 74). doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.1.f5

Citation: Hill V. 2016. Water Sampling and Processing Techniques for Public Health–Related Microbes, p 2.6.1-1-2.6.1-16. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.1
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