Chapter 3 : From Evolutionary Advantage to Disease Agents: Forensic Reevaluation of Host-Microbe Interactions and Pathogenicity

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In a world dominated by microbes, our ancestors evolved alongside an outstandingly diverse ancient microbiota (see Fig. 1 , Table 1 ). Symbiotic relationships between animals, microbes, and viruses have been observed as far back in animal evolutionary history as when hydras made their appearance, and these interactions currently span across all types of life forms ( ). It’s clear that these ancient relationships have shaped the evolution of both the host and symbionts, although the selective pressures governing these processes remain uncertain ( ).

Citation: Rivera-Pérez J, González A, Toranzos G. 2018. From Evolutionary Advantage to Disease Agents: Forensic Reevaluation of Host-Microbe Interactions and Pathogenicity, p 33-62. In Cano R, Toranzos G (ed), Environmental Microbial Forensics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EMF-0009-2016
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Figure 1

Endosymbiosis: Homage to Lynn Margulis. Artist: Shoshanah Dubiner. This painting illustrates a portion of the incredible microbial complexity that existed on this planet when animals evolved, and thus the microbial soup in which all organisms developed. Image courtesy of the artist. Image credits: Endosymbiosis: Homage to Lynn Margulis, Shoshanah Dubiner, 2012. http://www.cybermuse.com.

Citation: Rivera-Pérez J, González A, Toranzos G. 2018. From Evolutionary Advantage to Disease Agents: Forensic Reevaluation of Host-Microbe Interactions and Pathogenicity, p 33-62. In Cano R, Toranzos G (ed), Environmental Microbial Forensics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EMF-0009-2016
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Figure 2

in Ötzi, the 5,300-year-old iceman. Reads specific to were detected via metagenomic analysis of DNA extracted from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of Ötzi the Tyrolean Iceman. The area where the muscle control sample was obtained is highlighted as a diamond (picture on the left), and the gastrointestinal sampling sites are marked in the radiographic image using the following legend: star, stomach content; circle, small intestine; square, upper large intestine; triangle, lower large intestine. The number of -specific reads per million metagenomic reads is indicated by the colored gradient bar on the right. Figure reproduced from reference ( ), with permission. Reproduced from reference ( ), with permission.

Citation: Rivera-Pérez J, González A, Toranzos G. 2018. From Evolutionary Advantage to Disease Agents: Forensic Reevaluation of Host-Microbe Interactions and Pathogenicity, p 33-62. In Cano R, Toranzos G (ed), Environmental Microbial Forensics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EMF-0009-2016
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Figure 3

Lower fecal microbiome diversity associated with individuals from industrialized cultures. Clemente et al. ( ) compared the bacterial diversity in feces from cultures with hunter-gatherer lifestyles compared to progressively more industrialized cultures. Phylogenetic diversity in feces from Yanomami and Guahibo Amerindians, Malawians, and U.S. individuals. A higher bacterial diversity was detected in feces from the Yanomami, an isolated, rural indigenous culture inhabiting the Amazon. In comparison, a slightly decreased fecal diversity was found in Guahibo Amerindians. However, a major decrease was detected in the diversity of the fecal microbiota in U.S. subjects. A pronounced decrease was also detected in the functional profiles of fecal microbiomes from U.S. subjects compared to cultures with more traditional lifestyles (figure not shown). Key differential bacterial groups between fecal microbiomes from Yanomami and Guahibo Amerindians, Malawians, and U.S. subjects. Functional diversity in feces from Yanomami and Guahibo Amerindians, Malawians, and U.S. individuals. As expected, a higher overall functional diversity was detected in Yanomami Amerindians. Comparison of major metabolic pathways detected in fecal microbiomes from Yanomami and Guahibo Amerindians, Malawians, and U.S. subjects. Reproduced from reference ( ), with permission.

Citation: Rivera-Pérez J, González A, Toranzos G. 2018. From Evolutionary Advantage to Disease Agents: Forensic Reevaluation of Host-Microbe Interactions and Pathogenicity, p 33-62. In Cano R, Toranzos G (ed), Environmental Microbial Forensics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EMF-0009-2016
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Figure 4

Forensic studies with JCV DNA suggest that the expansion of from prehistoric Africa occurred as a two-migration model. As Pavesi shows in his model, two out-of-Africa migrations were suggested by currently characterized JCV subtypes. The first migration, represented with a solid line, is compatible with that previously suggested by human genes. The second migration, traced with a dashed line, indicates an additional route of expansion suggested by JCV but that is undetectable using only human genes. Reproduced from reference ( ), with permission.

Citation: Rivera-Pérez J, González A, Toranzos G. 2018. From Evolutionary Advantage to Disease Agents: Forensic Reevaluation of Host-Microbe Interactions and Pathogenicity, p 33-62. In Cano R, Toranzos G (ed), Environmental Microbial Forensics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EMF-0009-2016
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Figure 5

Origin of human-associated . Although its exact ancestral history remains unresolved, recent studies clearly suggest that was associated with humans previous to their expansion from prehistoric Africa. However, is believed to have been an environmental microbe long before its association with ancient humans. This figure was taken from reference ( ), with permission, and depicts a summary of the conclusions implied by current phylogenetic literature on the evolution of and other members of the complex.

Citation: Rivera-Pérez J, González A, Toranzos G. 2018. From Evolutionary Advantage to Disease Agents: Forensic Reevaluation of Host-Microbe Interactions and Pathogenicity, p 33-62. In Cano R, Toranzos G (ed), Environmental Microbial Forensics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EMF-0009-2016
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Figure 6

infections in environmental amoebae and human macrophages. Electron micrographs of U937 macrophages and infected by (strain AA100) at 24 h. Reproduced from reference ( ), with permission.

Citation: Rivera-Pérez J, González A, Toranzos G. 2018. From Evolutionary Advantage to Disease Agents: Forensic Reevaluation of Host-Microbe Interactions and Pathogenicity, p 33-62. In Cano R, Toranzos G (ed), Environmental Microbial Forensics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EMF-0009-2016
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