Chapter 8 : : Carbon Metabolism and the Tick-Mammal Enzootic Cycle

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is the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, the most commonly reported arthropod-borne disease in the United States ( ). is a zoonotic pathogen that is maintained in a natural cycle involving mammalian reservoir hosts such as field mice, squirrels, and birds and an arthropod vector of the species ( ) ( Fig. 1 ). In the United States, the principal vector is , the common deer tick ( ). Because there is no transovarial transmission of , newly hatched larvae acquire the spirochete during their first blood meal on an infected mammalian host reservoir ( ). The spirochete is maintained in the midgut of the tick during molting to the nymphal stage. At this point, the spirochete is in a nonmotile state until the nymph begins to feed on the next mammalian host ( ). The spirochete then begins rapidly replicating in the feeding nymphal midgut, leaves the midgut and enters the hemolymph, from which the bacteria migrate to the salivary glands and are transmitted to the next mammalian host ( ) ( Fig. 1 ).

Citation: Corona A, Schwartz I. 2015. : Carbon Metabolism and the Tick-Mammal Enzootic Cycle, p 167-184. In Conway T, Cohen P (ed), Metabolism and Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MBP-0011-2014
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Figure 1

enzootic cycle. (1) Uninfected larva emerges from eggs. (2) Larval acquisition of during a blood meal on an infected reservoir host. (3) Infected fed larva molts to an unfed nymph. (4) Transmission of from a feeding nymph to an uninfected reservoir host during the nymphal blood meal. (5) Infected fed nymph molts to an adult. (6) Female and male adults mate on a large mammal (typically deer). The female adult feeds on the large mammal and lays eggs.

Citation: Corona A, Schwartz I. 2015. : Carbon Metabolism and the Tick-Mammal Enzootic Cycle, p 167-184. In Conway T, Cohen P (ed), Metabolism and Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MBP-0011-2014
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Figure 2

carbohydrate transporters. Schematic diagram indicates predicted or experimentally verified transport systems. numbers indicate gene locus in strain B31 ( ). Based on von Lackum and Stevenson ( ).

Citation: Corona A, Schwartz I. 2015. : Carbon Metabolism and the Tick-Mammal Enzootic Cycle, p 167-184. In Conway T, Cohen P (ed), Metabolism and Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MBP-0011-2014
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Figure 3

The glycolytic pathway and control of glycolytic flux during the enzootic cycle.

Citation: Corona A, Schwartz I. 2015. : Carbon Metabolism and the Tick-Mammal Enzootic Cycle, p 167-184. In Conway T, Cohen P (ed), Metabolism and Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MBP-0011-2014
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Figure 4

Schematic diagram depicting reported regulatory circuits controlling glycerol and chitobiose utilization. Solid lines indicate interactions confirmed by studies; dashed lines indicate interactions observed only. Diagram is a summary of data from references , and .

Citation: Corona A, Schwartz I. 2015. : Carbon Metabolism and the Tick-Mammal Enzootic Cycle, p 167-184. In Conway T, Cohen P (ed), Metabolism and Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MBP-0011-2014
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genes encoding proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism

Citation: Corona A, Schwartz I. 2015. : Carbon Metabolism and the Tick-Mammal Enzootic Cycle, p 167-184. In Conway T, Cohen P (ed), Metabolism and Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MBP-0011-2014

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