Chapter 29 : Plasmid-Encoded Iron Uptake Systems

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Iron is one of the most important metals for life, as it is necessary for the proper functioning of proteins that mediate essential cellular processes such as DNA precursor synthesis, respiration, photosynthesis, and nitrogen fixation. Iron is one of the most abundant elements on earth; however, its bioavailability is very low. In the presence of oxygen, ferrous iron oxidizes to ferric iron that is poorly soluble at neutral pH. Additionally, free iron is toxic due to the formation of free oxygen radicals that can cause cell damage ( ). Therefore, in biological systems the iron is complexed to keep it soluble and to reduce the toxicity of free iron.

Citation: Di Lorenzo M, Stork M. 2015. Plasmid-Encoded Iron Uptake Systems, p 577-597. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0030-2014
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Image of Figure 1a
Figure 1a

Schematic representation of a ColV plasmid ( ) showing all open reading frames related to iron uptake, their function, and their membrane localization when relevant. Each system is color-coded. The region is shown as a gray box, and the origins of replication are shown as black boxes. Structures of the two siderophores aerobactin and salmochelin S4 are shown within the plasmid.

Citation: Di Lorenzo M, Stork M. 2015. Plasmid-Encoded Iron Uptake Systems, p 577-597. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0030-2014
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Image of Figure 1b
Figure 1b

Schematic representation of a ColV plasmid ( ) showing all open reading frames related to iron uptake, their function, and their membrane localization when relevant. Each system is color-coded. The region is shown as a gray box, and the origins of replication are shown as black boxes. Structures of the two siderophores aerobactin and salmochelin S4 are shown within the plasmid.

Citation: Di Lorenzo M, Stork M. 2015. Plasmid-Encoded Iron Uptake Systems, p 577-597. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0030-2014
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Schematic representation of the pJM1 plasmid showing all open reading frames, the structure of anguibactin, and the transport proteins in the membranes. Genes that are involved in siderophore synthesis are shown in red; those involved in transport are blue. Black boxes indicate the location of the antisense RNAs. The shaded proteins in transport are chromosomally encoded. Location of the origins of replication is indicated by a black line.

Citation: Di Lorenzo M, Stork M. 2015. Plasmid-Encoded Iron Uptake Systems, p 577-597. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0030-2014
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