Chapter 18 : Detection of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci

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Detection of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci, Page 1 of 2

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Vancomycin is a glycopeptide derived from soil bacteria that was authorized for use in 1958 for infections due to Gram-positive bacteria resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Toxicity led to its rapid replacement by methicillin in 1960; however, vancomycin use was again required by the 1970s for infections due to methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and toxigenic . In 1986, the first outbreak of enterococci with high-level resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin was reported in the United Kingdom (1). A year later, infections due to vancomycin-resistant infections were identified in the United States (2, 3).

Citation: McGeer A, Willey B. 2016. Detection of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci, p 212-231. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch18
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Image of FIGURE 1

Phylogenetic tree constructed using MEGA6 ( ) showing the relationships of -Ala--Lac ligases, -Ala--Ser ligases, and -Ala--Ala ligases (Ddl). The proteins were aligned using ClustalW ( ), and the tree was constructed with the neighbor-joining method ( ) using 247 amino acids. The evolutionary distances were computed using the JTT matrix-based method ( ), and the units are number of amino acid substitutions per site. Robustness of the data was tested by bootstrap analysis ( ) using 1,000 replicates. GenBank accession numbers are shown in brackets. (Figure courtesy of David A. Boyd, National Microbiology Laboratory, Winnipeg, Canada.)

Citation: McGeer A, Willey B. 2016. Detection of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci, p 212-231. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch18
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Image of FIGURE 2

Schematic diagram of (A) the -Ala--Lac operons found in enterococci and and and (B) the -Ala--Ser operons found in enterococci. The operons are aligned at the -Ala--Xxx ligase genes. Other genes are (), transcriptional activator; (), response regulator; (), sensor histidine kinase; (), unknown function; (), dehydrogenase; (), serine racemase; (), serine racemase membrane domain; (), serine racemase racemase domain; (), carboxypeptidase; (), dipeptidase; (), dipeptidease/carboxypeptidase; (), unknown function but known to be involved in teicoplanin resistance; , aminoacyl transferase; , teicoplanin resistance membrane protein. (Figure courtesy David A. Boyd, National Microbiology Laboratory, Winnipeg, Canada.)

Citation: McGeer A, Willey B. 2016. Detection of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci, p 212-231. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch18
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