Chapter 22 : Surveillance and Epidemiology of Norovirus Infections

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Surveillance and Epidemiology of Norovirus Infections, Page 1 of 2

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Norovirus is recognized as the leading cause of diarrheal disease in many countries. A study of the published literature shows that in the United Kingdom it is estimated to cause around 3 million cases each year (1). In the Netherlands, it has been estimated that norovirus is responsible for 11% of the 4.5 million diarrhea cases annually (2). In Canada, the estimated number of cases of gastrointestinal disease attributed to norovirus overall was a little over 3.3 million (3), accounting for 42% of gastrointestinal disease. A review by Hall et al. suggests that the number of people infected with norovirus in the United States is between 19 and 21 million each year (4). In the Southern Hemisphere, norovirus is the most common cause of gastrointestinal disease; one study from New Zealand suggests that norovirus was responsible for 26% of outbreaks, and in Australia norovirus causes the highest number of cases of gastrointestinal disease (5). A recent systematic review suggests that globally, norovirus is responsible for 20% of the burden of gastrointestinal disease (6).

Citation: Harris J. 2016. Surveillance and Epidemiology of Norovirus Infections, p 266-274. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch22
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Image of FIGURE 1

Reporting pyramid for norovirus. Adapted from Wall et al. ( ).

Citation: Harris J. 2016. Surveillance and Epidemiology of Norovirus Infections, p 266-274. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch22
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Image of FIGURE 2

Public Health England laboratory reports of norovirus 2000–2014.

Citation: Harris J. 2016. Surveillance and Epidemiology of Norovirus Infections, p 266-274. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch22
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Image of FIGURE 3

(A) Phylogram showing distribution of norovirus genogroups. (B) Diversity of GII.4 genotypes. (Courtesy of David James Allen, Virus Reference Department, Public Health England.)

Citation: Harris J. 2016. Surveillance and Epidemiology of Norovirus Infections, p 266-274. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch22
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