Chapter 36 : Molecular Approaches for Diagnosis of Chagas' Disease and Genotyping of

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Molecular Approaches for Diagnosis of Chagas' Disease and Genotyping of , Page 1 of 2

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Chagas' disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is a vector-borne parasite infection caused by the protozoan , which affects about 7 to 8 million people, mainly in Latin America. The parasite is primarily transmitted by different species of triatomine bugs (: : : ). However, infection can also be acquired congenitally, by oral transmission (from consumption of food contaminated with infected triatomine bug feces), by blood transfusions, and by organ transplantation (1). is a highly diverse species, and six major lineages, or discrete typing units (DTUs) (TcI to TcVI), have been described for this parasite. During its life cycle, infects both insect vectors and mammalian hosts and undergoes morphological and functional changes. Three main morphological forms of the parasite are recognized, namely (i) amastigotes (intracellular replicative forms in mammalian tissues), (ii) trypomastigotes (nonreplicative forms: metacyclic trypomastigote in the rectum of triatomine vectors and bloodstream trypomastigotes in mammalian blood), and (iii) epimastigotes (replicative forms found in the triatomine midgut). Intermediate forms are also recognized (2).

Citation: Diosque P, Tomasini N, Tibayrenc M. 2016. Molecular Approaches for Diagnosis of Chagas' Disease and Genotyping of , p 501-515. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch36
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Image of FIGURE 1

Simplified scheme for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data analysis based on allelic profiles. ( ) Allele numbers are arbitrarily assigned considering the rule that two identical sequences always have the same allele number. ( ) DSTs are arbitrarily assigned considering that two isolates with the same allelic profile must have the same DST number.

Citation: Diosque P, Tomasini N, Tibayrenc M. 2016. Molecular Approaches for Diagnosis of Chagas' Disease and Genotyping of , p 501-515. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch36
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Image of FIGURE 2

Simplified scheme for multilocus sequence typing data analysis based on concatenation of fragments. ( ) Distance matrix is calculated by counting the number of nucleotide differences between isolates. ( ) Tree inference is made by neighbor-joining or unweighted-pair group method using average linkages methods.

Citation: Diosque P, Tomasini N, Tibayrenc M. 2016. Molecular Approaches for Diagnosis of Chagas' Disease and Genotyping of , p 501-515. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch36
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Best-performing methods for molecular diagnosis of Chagas' disease

Citation: Diosque P, Tomasini N, Tibayrenc M. 2016. Molecular Approaches for Diagnosis of Chagas' Disease and Genotyping of , p 501-515. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch36
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qPCR methods analyzed by Ramirez et al. ( )

Citation: Diosque P, Tomasini N, Tibayrenc M. 2016. Molecular Approaches for Diagnosis of Chagas' Disease and Genotyping of , p 501-515. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch36
Generic image for table

Optimized multilocus sequence typing scheme for

Citation: Diosque P, Tomasini N, Tibayrenc M. 2016. Molecular Approaches for Diagnosis of Chagas' Disease and Genotyping of , p 501-515. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch36

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