Chapter 19 : Respiratory Viruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Respiratory Viruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819156/9781555819149.ch19-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819156/9781555819149.ch19-2.gif


Respiratory tract illnesses are one of the most common health conditions affecting humans. Most of these illnesses are caused or triggered by viruses. Clinical presentations and severity range from mild and self-limited upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTI) to serious or fatal lower respiratory tract disease. Respiratory viruses exert considerable pressure on health care systems, are significant drivers of antibiotic overuse, and contribute significantly to loss of productivity. Accurate identification of these infections and appropriate care of affected patients are therefore priorities for health care systems.

Citation: Robinson C, Loeffelholz M, Pinsky B. 2016. Respiratory Viruses, p 255-276. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch19
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Ortiz JR, Neuzil KM, Cooke CR, Neradilek MB, Goss CH, Shay DK . 2014. Influenza pneumonia surveillance among hospitalized adults may underestimate the burden of severe influenza disease. PLoS One 9 : e113903.[PubMed]
2. Morens DM, Taubenberger JK, Harvey HA, Memoli MJ . 2010. The 1918 influenza pandemic: lessons for 2009 and the future. Crit Care Med 38( Suppl) : e10 e20.[PubMed]
3. Jhung MA, Swerdlow D, Olsen SJ, Jernigan D, Biggerstaff M, Kamimoto L, Kniss K, Reed C, Fry A, Brammer L, Gindler J, Gregg WJ, Bresee J, Finelli L . 2011. Epidemiology of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 52( Suppl 1) : S13 S26.[PubMed]
4. Jhung MA, Epperson S, Biggerstaff M, Allen D, Balish A, Barnes N, Beaudoin A, Berman L, Bidol S, Blanton L, Blythe D, Brammer L, D'Mello T, Danila R, Davis W, de Fijter S, Diorio M, Durand LO, Emery S, Fowler B, Garten R, Grant Y, Greenbaum A, Gubareva L, Havers F, Haupt T, House J, Ibrahim S, Jiang V, Jain S, Jernigan D, Kazmierczak J, Klimov A, Lindstrom S, Longenberger A, Lucas P, Lynfield R, McMorrow M, Moll M, Morin C, Ostroff S, Page SL, Park SY, Peters S, Quinn C, Reed C, Richards S, Scheftel J, Simwale O, Shu B, Soyemi K, Stauffer J, Steffens C, Su S, Torso L, Uyeki TM, Vetter S, Villanueva J, Wong KK, Shaw M, Bresee JS, Cox N, Finelli L . 2013. Outbreak of variant influenza A(H3N2) virus in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 57 : 1703 1712.[PubMed]
5. Su S, Bi Y, Wong G, Gray GC, Gao GF, Li S . 2015. Epidemiology, evolution, and recent outbreaks of avian influenza viruses in China. J Virol 89 : 8671 8676.[PubMed]
6. Díez-Domingo J, Pérez-Yarza EG, Melero JA, Sánchez-Luna M, Aguilar MD, Blasco AJ, Alfaro N, Lázaro P . 2014. Social, economic, and health impact of the respiratory syncytial virus: a systematic search. BMC Infect Dis 14 : 544 574.[PubMed]
7. Jain S, Williams DJ, Arnold SR, Ampofo K, Bramley AM, Reed C, Stockmann C, Anderson EJ, Grijalva CG, Self WH, Zhu Y, Patel A, Hymas W, Chappell JD, Kaufman RA, Kan JH, Dansie D, Lenny N, Hillyard DR, Haynes LM, Levine M, Lindstrom S, Winchell JM, Katz JM, Erdman D, Schneider E, Hicks LA, Wunderink RG, Edwards KM, Pavia AT, McCullers JA, Finelli L CDC EPIC Study Team . 2015. Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among U.S. children. N Engl J Med 372 : 835 845.[PubMed]
8. Falsey AR, Hennessey PA, Formica MA, Cox C, Walsh EE . 2005. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in elderly and high-risk adults. N Engl J Med 352 : 1749 1759.[PubMed]
9. Falsey AR . 2007. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 28 : 171 181.[PubMed]
10. Walsh EE, Peterson DR, Falsey AR . 2008. Human metapneumovirus infections in adults: another piece of the puzzle. Arch Intern Med 168 : 2489 2496.[PubMed]
11. Avetisyan G, Mattsson J, Sparrelid E, Ljungman P . 2009. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in recipients of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation: a retrospective study of the incidence, clinical features, and outcome. Transplantation 88 : 1222 1226.[PubMed]
12. Abedi GR, Prill MM, Langley GE, Wikswo ME, Weinberg GA, Curns AT, Schneider E . 2016. Estimates of parainfluenza virus-associated hospitalizations and cost among children aged less than 5 years in the United States, 1998–2010. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 5 : 7 13.[PubMed]
13. Frost HM, Robinson CC, Dominguez SR . 2014. Epidemiology and clinical presentation of parainfluenza type 4 in children: a 3-year comparative study to parainfluenza types 1–3. J Infect Dis 209 : 695 702.[PubMed]
14. Shah DP, Shah PK, Azzi JM, Chemaly RF . 2016. Parainfluenza virus infections in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients and hematologic malignancy patients: A systematic review. Cancer Lett 370 : 358 364.[PubMed]
15. Peck AJ, Englund JA, Kuypers J, Guthrie KA, Corey L, Morrow R, Hackman RC, Cent A, Boeckh M . 2007. Respiratory virus infection among hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: evidence for asymptomatic parainfluenza virus infection. Blood 110 : 1681 1688.[PubMed]
16. Sydnor ER, Greer A, Budd AP, Pehar M, Munshaw S, Neofytos D, Perl TM, Valsamakis A . 2012. An outbreak of human parainfluenza virus 3 infection in an outpatient hematopoietic stem cell transplantation clinic. Am J Infect Control 40 : 601 605.[PubMed]
17. Rahamat-Langendoen JC, Riezebos-Brilman A, Hak E, Schölvinck EH, Niesters HG . 2013. The significance of rhinovirus detection in hospitalized children: clinical, epidemiological and virological features. Clin Microbiol Infect 19 : E435 E442.[PubMed]
18. Linder JE, Kraft DC, Mohamed Y, Lu Z, Heil L, Tollefson S, Saville BR, Wright PF, Williams JV, Miller EK . 2013. Human rhinovirus C: Age, season, and lower respiratory illness over the past 3 decades. J Allergy Clin Immunol 131 : 69 77.e1-6.[PubMed]
19. Messacar K, Robinson CC, Bagdure D, Curtis DJ, Glodé MP, Dominguez SR . 2013. Rhino/enteroviruses in hospitalized children: a comparison to influenza viruses. J Clin Virol 56 : 41 45.[PubMed]
20. Jartti T, Jartti L, Peltola V, Waris M, Ruuskanen O . 2008. Identification of respiratory viruses in asymptomatic subjects: asymptomatic respiratory viral infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J 27 : 1103 1107.[PubMed]
21. Piralla A, Zecca M, Comoli P, Girello A, Maccario R, Baldanti F . 2015. Persistent rhinovirus infection in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with impaired cellular immunity. J Clin Virol 67 : 38 42.[PubMed]
22. Peltola V, Waris M, Kainulainen L, Kero J, Ruuskanen O . 2013. Virus shedding after human rhinovirus infection in children, adults and patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia. Clin Microbiol Infect 19 : E322 E327.[PubMed]
23. Loeffelholz MJ, Trujillo R, Pyles RB, Miller AL, Alvarez-Fernandez P, Pong DL, Chonmaitree T . 2014. Duration of rhinovirus shedding in the upper respiratory tract in the first year of life. Pediatrics 134 : 1144 1150.[PubMed]
24. Gaunt ER, Hardie A, Claas EC, Simmonds P, Templeton KE . 2010. Epidemiology and clinical presentations of the four human coronaviruses 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43 detected over 3 years using a novel multiplex real-time PCR method. J Clin Microbiol 48 : 2940 2947.[PubMed]
25. Muller MP, McGeer A . 2007. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 28 : 201 212.[PubMed]
26. Zumla A, Hui DS, Perlman S . 2015. Middle East respiratory syndrome. Lancet 386 : 995 1007.[PubMed]
27. Kajon AE, Lu X, Erdman DD, Louie J, Schnurr D, George KS, Koopmans MP, Allibhai T, Metzgar D . 2010. Molecular epidemiology and brief history of emerging adenovirus 14-associated respiratory disease in the United States. J Infect Dis 202 : 93 103.[PubMed]
28. Su S, Chaves SS, Perez A, D'Mello T, Kirley PD, Yousey-Hindes K, Farley MM, Harris M, Sharangpani R, Lynfield R, Morin C, Hancock EB, Zansky S, Hollick GE, Fowler B, McDonald-Hamm C, Thomas A, Horan V, Lindegren ML, Schaffner W, Price A, Bandyopadhyay A, Fry AM . 2014. Comparing clinical characteristics between hospitalized adults with laboratory-confirmed influenza A and B virus infection. Clin Infect Dis 59 : 252 255.[PubMed]
29. Minodier L, Charrel RN, Ceccaldi PE, van der Werf S, Blanchon T, Hanslik T, Falchi A . 2015. Prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with influenza, clinical significance, and pathophysiology of human influenza viruses in faecal samples: what do we know? Virol J 12 : 215.
30. Paddock CD, Liu L, Denison AM, Bartlett JH, Holman RC, Deleon-Carnes M, Emery SL, Drew CP, Shieh WJ, Uyeki TM, Zaki SR . 2012. Myocardial injury and bacterial pneumonia contribute to the pathogenesis of fatal influenza B virus infection. J Infect Dis 205 : 895 905.[PubMed]
31. Reed C, Chaves SS, Perez A, D'Mello T, Daily Kirley P, Aragon D, Meek JI, Farley MM, Ryan P, Lynfield R, Morin CA, Hancock EB, Bennett NM, Zansky SM, Thomas A, Lindegren ML, Schaffner W, Finelli L . 2014. Complications among adults hospitalized with influenza: a comparison of seasonal influenza and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Clin Infect Dis 59 : 166 174.[PubMed]
32. Yu L, Wang Z, Chen Y, Ding W, Jia H, Chan JF, To KK, Chen H, Yang Y, Liang W, Zheng S, Yao H, Yang S, Cao H, Dai X, Zhao H, Li J, Bao Q, Chen P, Hou X, Li L, Yuen KY . 2013. Clinical, virological, and histopathological manifestations of fatal human infections by avian influenza A(H7N9) virus. Clin Infect Dis 57 : 1449 1457.[PubMed]
33. Ruohola A, Pettigrew MM, Lindholm L, Jalava J, Räisänen KS, Vainionpää R, Waris M, Tähtinen PA, Laine MK, Lahti E, Ruuskanen O, Huovinen P . 2013. Bacterial and viral interactions within the nasopharynx contribute to the risk of acute otitis media. J Infect 66 : 247 254.[PubMed]
34. Lukens MV, van de Pol AC, Coenjaerts FE, Jansen NJ, Kamp VM, Kimpen JL, Rossen JW, Ulfman LH, Tacke CE, Viveen MC, Koenderman L, Wolfs TF, van Bleek GM . 2010. A systemic neutrophil response precedes robust CD8(+) T-cell activation during natural respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants. J Virol 84 : 2374 2383.[PubMed]
35. Meng J, Stobart CC, Hotard AL, Moore ML . 2014. An overview of respiratory syncytial virus. PLoS Pathog 10 : e1004016.[PubMed]
36. Henrickson KJ, Hoover S, Kehl KS, Hua W . 2004. National disease burden of respiratory viruses detected in children by polymerase chain reaction. Pediatr Infect Dis J 23( Suppl) : S11 S18.[PubMed]
37. Peltola V, Waris M, Kainulainen L, Kero J, Ruuskanen O . 2013. Virus shedding after human rhinovirus infection in children, adults and patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia. Clin Microbiol Infect 19 : E322 E327.[PubMed]
38. Zlateva KT, de Vries JJ, Coenjaerts FE, van Loon AM, Verheij T, Little P, Butler CC, Goossens H, Ieven M, Claas EC; GRACE Study Group . 2014. Prolonged shedding of rhinovirus and re-infection in adults with respiratory tract illness. Eur Respir J 44 : 169 177.[PubMed]
39. Iwane MK, Prill MM, Lu X, Miller EK, Edwards KM, Hall CB, Griffin MR, Staat MA, Anderson LJ, Williams JV, Weinberg GA, Ali A, Szilagyi PG, Zhu Y, Erdman DD . 2011. Human rhinovirus species associated with hospitalizations for acute respiratory illness in young US children. J Infect Dis 204 : 1702 1710.[PubMed]
40. Jacobs SE, Lamson DM, Soave R, Guzman BH, Shore TB, Ritchie EK, Zappetti D, Satlin MJ, Leonard JP, van Besien K, Schuetz AN, Jenkins SG, George KS, Walsh TJ . 2015. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of human rhinovirus infections in patients with hematologic malignancy. J Clin Virol 71 : 51 58.[PubMed]
41. Fuji N, Suzuki A, Lupisan S, Sombrero L, Galang H, Kamigaki T, Tamaki R, Saito M, Aniceto R, Olveda R, Oshitani H . 2011. Detection of human rhinovirus C viral genome in blood among children with severe respiratory infections in the Philippines. PLoS One 6 : e27247.[PubMed]
42. Harvala H, McIntyre CL, McLeish NJ, Kondracka J, Palmer J, Molyneaux P, Gunson R, Bennett S, Templeton K, Simmonds P . 2012. High detection frequency and viral loads of human rhinovirus species A to C in fecal samples; diagnostic and clinical implications. J Med Virol 84 : 536 542.[PubMed]
43. Prill MM, Iwane MK, Edwards KM, Williams JV, Weinberg GA, Staat MA, Willby MJ, Talbot HK, Hall CB, Szilagyi PG, Griffin MR, Curns AT, Erdman DD New Vaccine Surveillance Network . 2012. Human coronavirus in young children hospitalized for acute respiratory illness and asymptomatic controls. Pediatr Infect Dis J 31 : 235 240.[PubMed]
44. Talbot HK, Shepherd BE, Crowe JE Jr, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Podsiad AB, Tollefson SJ, Wright PF, Williams JV . 2009. The pediatric burden of human coronaviruses evaluated for twenty years. Pediatr Infect Dis J 28 : 682 687.[PubMed]
45. Echavarría M . 2008. Adenoviruses in immunocompromised hosts. Clin Microbiol Rev 21 : 704 715.[PubMed]
46. DeVincenzo JP, Whitley RJ, Mackman RL, Scaglioni-Weinlich C, Harrison L, Farrell E, McBride S, Lambkin-Williams R, Jordan R, Xin Y, Ramanathan S, O'Riordan T, Lewis SA, Li X, Toback SL, Lin SL, Chien JW . 2014. Oral GS-5806 activity in a respiratory syncytial virus challenge study. N Engl J Med 371 : 711 722.[PubMed]
47. Graham BS . 2016. Vaccines against respiratory syncytial virus: the time has finally come. Vaccine 34 : 3535 3541.[PubMed]
48. Andabaka T, Nickerson JW, Rojas-Reyes MX, Rueda JD, Bacic Vrca V, Barsic B . 2013. Monoclonal antibody for reducing the risk of respiratory syncytial virus infection in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev ( 4) : CD006602.[PubMed]
49. Salvatore M, Satlin MJ, Jacobs SE, Jenkins SG, Schuetz AN, Moss RB, Van Besien K, Shore T, Soave R . 2016. DAS181 for Treatment of Parainfluenza Virus Infections in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients at a Single Center. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 22 : 965 970.[PubMed]
50. Glanville N, Johnston SL . 2015. Challenges in developing a cross-serotype rhinovirus vaccine. Curr Opin Virol 11 : 83 88.[PubMed]
51. Modjarrad K . 2016. Treatment strategies for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J Virus Erad 2 : 1 4.[PubMed]
52. Perlman S, Vijay R . 2016. Middle East respiratory syndrome vaccines. Int J Infect Dis Apr 7. pii: S1201-9712(16)31021-9 .. [Epub ahead of print]
53. Pascal KE, Coleman CM, Mujica AO, Kamat V, Badithe A, Fairhurst J, Hunt C, Strein J, Berrebi A, Sisk JM, Matthews KL, Babb R, Chen G, Lai KM, Huang TT, Olson W, Yancopoulos GD, Stahl N, Frieman MB, Kyratsous CA . 2015. Pre- and postexposure efficacy of fully human antibodies against Spike protein in a novel humanized mouse model of MERS-CoV infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112 : 8738 8743.[PubMed]
54. Kim SJ, Kim K, Park SB, Hong DJ, Jhun BW . 2015. Outcomes of early administration of cidofovir in non-immunocompromised patients with severe adenovirus pneumonia. PLoS One 10 : e0122642.[PubMed]
55. Florescu DF, Keck MA . 2014. Development of CMX001 (Brincidofovir) for the treatment of serious diseases or conditions caused by dsDNA viruses. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 12 : 1171 1178.[PubMed]
56. O'Reilly RJ, Prockop S, Hasan AN, Koehne G, Doubrovina E . 2016. Virus-specific T-cell banks for ‘off the shelf’ adoptive therapy of refractory infections. Bone Marrow Transplant 2016 : 1 10.[PubMed]
57. O'Donnell FL, Taubman SB . 2015. Follow-up analysis of the incidence of acute respiratory infections among enlisted service members during their first year of military service before and after the 2011 resumption of adenovirus vaccination of basic trainees. MSMR 22 : 2 7.[PubMed]
58. Spencer S, Gaglani M, Naleway A, Reynolds S, Ball S, Bozeman S, Henkle E, Meece J, Vandermause M, Clipper L, Thompson M . 2013. Consistency of influenza A virus detection test results across respiratory specimen collection methods using real-time reverse transcription-PCR. J Clin Microbiol 51 : 3880 3882.[PubMed]
59. Lee N, Chan PK, Hui DS, Rainer TH, Wong E, Choi KW, Lui GC, Wong BC, Wong RY, Lam WY, Chu IM, Lai RW, Cockram CS, Sung JJ . 2009. Viral loads and duration of viral shedding in adult patients hospitalized with influenza. J Infect Dis 200 : 492 500.[PubMed]
60. Rabalais GP, Stout GG, Ladd KL, Cost KM . 1992. Rapid diagnosis of respiratory viral infections by using a shell vial assay and monoclonal antibody pool. J Clin Microbiol 30 : 1505 1508.[PubMed]
61. LaSala PR, Bufton KK, Ismail N, Smith MB . 2007. Prospective comparison of R-mix shell vial system with direct antigen tests and conventional cell culture for respiratory virus detection. J Clin Virol 38 : 210 216.[PubMed]
62. Ginocchio CC, Zhang F, Manji R, Arora S, Bornfreund M, Falk L, Lotlikar M, Kowerska M, Becker G, Korologos D, de Geronimo M, Crawford JM . 2009. Evaluation of multiple test methods for the detection of the novel 2009 influenza A (H1N1) during the New York City outbreak. J Clin Virol 45 : 191 195.[PubMed]
63. Chan KH, To KK, Chan JF, Li CP, Chan KM, Chen H, Ho PL, Yuen KY . 2014. Assessment of antigen and molecular tests with serial specimens from a patient with influenza A(H7N9) infection. J Clin Microbiol 52 : 2272 2274.[PubMed]
64. Stevenson HL, Loeffelholz MJ . 2010. Poor positive accuracy of QuickVue rapid antigen tests during the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic. J Clin Microbiol 48 : 3729 3731.[PubMed]
65. Leonardi GP, Wilson AM, Mitrache I, Zuretti AR . 2015. Comparison of the Sofia and Veritor direct antigen detection assay systems for identification of influenza viruses from patient nasopharyngeal specimens. J Clin Microbiol 53 : 1345 1347.[PubMed]
66. Popowitch EB, O'Neill SS, Miller MB . 2013. Comparison of the Biofire FilmArray RP, Genmark eSensor RVP, Luminex xTAG RVPv1, and Luminex xTAG RVP fast multiplex assays for detection of respiratory viruses. J Clin Microbiol 51 : 1528 1533.[PubMed]
67. Loeffelholz MJ, Pong DL, Pyles RB, Xiong Y, Miller AL, Bufton KK, Chonmaitree T . 2011. Comparison of the FilmArray Respiratory Panel and Prodesse real-time PCR assays for detection of respiratory pathogens. J Clin Microbiol 49 : 4083 4088.[PubMed]
68. Nguyen Van JC, Caméléna F, Dahoun M, Pilmis B, Mizrahi A, Lourtet J, Behillil S, Enouf V, Le Monnier A . 2016. Prospective evaluation of the Alere i Influenza A&B nucleic acid amplification versus Xpert Flu/RSV. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 85 : 19 22.[PubMed]
69. Binnicker MJ, Espy MJ, Irish CL, Vetter EA . 2015. Direct detection of influenza A and B viruses in less than 20 minutes using a commercially available rapid PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 53 : 2353 2354.[PubMed]
70. Jun KR, Woo YD, Sung H, Kim MN . 2008. Detection of human metapneumovirus by direct antigen test and shell vial cultures using immunofluorescent antibody staining. J Virol Methods 152 : 109 111.[PubMed]
71. Aslanzadeh J, Zheng X, Li H, Tetreault J, Ratkiewicz I, Meng S, Hamilton P, Tang YW . 2008. Prospective evaluation of rapid antigen tests for diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus infections. J Clin Microbiol 46 : 1682 1685.[PubMed]
72. Leonardi GP, Wilson AM, Dauz M, Zuretti AR . 2015. Evaluation of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) direct antigen detection assays for use in point-of-care testing. J Virol Methods 213 : 131 134.[PubMed]
73. Popowitch EB, Miller MB . 2015. Performance characteristics of Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay. J Clin Microbiol 53 : 2720 2721.[PubMed]
74. Selvaraju SB, Bambach AV, Leber AL, Patru MM, Patel A, Menegus MA . 2014. Comparison of the Simplexa™ Flu A/B & RSV kit (nucleic acid extraction-dependent assay) and the Prodessa ProFlu+™ assay for detecting influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 80 : 50 52.[PubMed]
75. Weinberg GA, Erdman DD, Edwards KM, Hall CB, Walker FJ, Griffin MR, Schwartz B New Vaccine Surveillance Network Study Group . 2004. Superiority of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to conventional viral culture in the diagnosis of acute respiratory tract infections in children. J Infect Dis 189 : 706 710.[PubMed]
76. Kuypers J, Wright N, Ferrenberg J, Huang ML, Cent A, Corey L, Morrow R . 2006. Comparison of real-time PCR assays with fluorescent-antibody assays for diagnosis of respiratory virus infections in children. J Clin Microbiol 44 : 2382 2388.[PubMed]
77. Waris M, Österback R, Lahti E, Vuorinen T, Ruuskanen O, Peltola V . 2013. Comparison of sampling methods for the detection of human rhinovirus RNA. J Clin Virol 58 : 200 204.[PubMed]
78. Lee WM, Kiesner C, Pappas T, Lee I, Grindle K, Jartti T, Jakiela B, Lemanske RF Jr, Shult PA, Gern JE . 2007. A diverse group of previously unrecognized human rhinoviruses are common causes of respiratory illnesses in infants. PLoS One 2 : e966.[PubMed]
79. Osterback R, Tevaluoto T, Ylinen T, Peltola V, Susi P, Hyypiä T, Waris M . 2013. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of human rhino- and enteroviruses in clinical specimens by real-time PCR with locked nucleic Acid probes. J Clin Microbiol 51 : 3960 3967.[PubMed]
80. Jansen RR, Wieringa J, Koekkoek SM, Visser CE, Pajkrt D, Molenkamp R, de Jong MD, Schinkel J . 2011. Frequent detection of respiratory viruses without symptoms: toward defining clinically relevant cutoff values. J Clin Microbiol 49 : 2631 2636.[PubMed]
81. Heinonen S, Jartti T, Garcia C, Oliva S, Smitherman C, Anguiano E, de Steenhuijsen Piters WA, Vuorinen T, Ruuskanen O, Dimo B, Suarez NM, Pascual V, Ramilo O, Mejias A . 2016. Rhinovirus Detection in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Children: Value of Host Transcriptome Analysis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 193 : 772 782.[PubMed]
82. Flomenberg P, Gutierrez E, Piaskowski V, Casper JT . 1997. Detection of adenovirus DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by polymerase chain reaction assay. J Med Virol 51 : 182 188.[PubMed]
83. Levent F, Greer JM, Snider M, Demmler-Harrison GJ . 2009. Performance of a new immunochromatographic assay for detection of adenoviruses in children. J Clin Virol 44 : 173 175.[PubMed]
84. Kam KY, Ong HS, Bunce C, Ogunbowale L, Verma S . 2015. Sensitivity and specificity of the AdenoPlus point-of-care system in detecting adenovirus in conjunctivitis patients at an ophthalmic emergency department: a diagnostic accuracy study. Br J Ophthalmol 99 : 1186 1189.[PubMed]
85. Manji R, Zheng X, Patel A, Kowerska M, Vossinas M, Drain A, Todd KM, Lenny N, DeVincenzo JP, Ginocchio CC . 2014. Multi-center evaluation of the adenovirus R-gene US assay for the detection of adenovirus in respiratory samples. J Clin Virol 60 : 90 95.[PubMed]
86. Song E, Wang H, Salamon D, Jaggi P, Leber A . 2016. Performance characteristics of FilmArray respiratory panel v1.7 for detection of adenovirus in a large cohort of pediatric nasopharyngeal samples: one test may not fit all. J Clin Microbiol 54 : 1479 1486.[PubMed]
87. Aberle SW, Aberle JH, Steininger C, Matthes-Martin S, Pracher E, Popow-Kraupp T . 2003. Adenovirus DNA in serum of children hospitalized due to an acute respiratory adenovirus infection. J Infect Dis 187 : 311 314.[PubMed]
88. Rogers BB, Shankar P, Jerris RC, Kotzbauer D, Anderson EJ, Watson JR, O'Brien LA, Uwindatwa F, McNamara K, Bost JE . 2015. Impact of a rapid respiratory panel test on patient outcomes. Arch Pathol Lab Med 139 : 636 641.[PubMed]
89. Byington CL, Castillo H, Gerber K, Daly JA, Brimley LA, Adams S, Christenson JC, Pavia AT . 2002. The effect of rapid respiratory viral diagnostic testing on antibiotic use in a children's hospital. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 156 : 1230 1234.[PubMed]
90. Nelson RE, Stockmann C, Hersh AL, Pavia AT, Korgenksi K, Daly JA, Couturier MR, Ampofo K, Thorell EA, Doby EH, Robison JA, Blaschke AJ . 2015. Economic analysis of rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction testing in the emergency department for influenza infections in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 34 : 577 582.[PubMed]
91. Reich NG, Cummings DA, Lauer SA, Zorn M, Robinson C, Nyquist AC, Price CS, Simberkoff M, Radonovich LJ, Perl TM . 2015. Triggering interventions for influenza: the ALERT algorithm. Clin Infect Dis 60 : 499 504.[PubMed]
92. Campbell AP, Guthrie KA, Englund JA, Farney RM, Minerich EL, Kuypers J, Corey L, Boeckh M . 2015. Clinical outcomes associated with respiratory virus detection before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Clin Infect Dis 61 : 192 202.[PubMed]
93. Beaird OE, Freifeld A, Ison MG, Lawrence SJ, Theodoropoulos N, Clark NM, Razonable RR, Alangaden G, Miller R, Smith J, Young JA, Hawkinson D, Pursell K, Kaul DR . 2016. Current practices for treatment of respiratory syncytial virus and other non-influenza respiratory viruses in high-risk patient populations: a survey of institutions in the Midwestern Respiratory Virus Collaborative. Transpl Infect Dis 18 : 210 215.[PubMed]
94. Bradley JS, Byington CL, Shah SS, Alverson B, Carter ER, Harrison C, Kaplan SL, Mace SE, McCracken GH Jr, Moore MR, St Peter SD, Stockwell JA, Swanson JT Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America . 2011. Executive summary: the management of community-acquired pneumonia in infants and children older than 3 months of age: clinical practice guidelines by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 53 : 617 630.[PubMed]
95. Hirsch HH, Martino R, Ward KN, Boeckh M, Einsele H, Ljungman P . 2013. Fourth European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-4): guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of human respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, and coronavirus. Clin Infect Dis 56 : 258 266.[PubMed]
96. Brittain-Long R, Westin J, Olofsson S, Lindh M, Andersson LM . 2011. Access to a polymerase chain reaction assay method targeting 13 respiratory viruses can reduce antibiotics: a randomised, controlled trial. BMC Med 9 : 44.[PubMed]
97. van de Pol AC, Wolfs TF, Tacke CE, Uiterwaal CS, Forster J, van Loon AM, Kimpen JL, Rossen JW, Jansen NJ . 2011. Impact of PCR for respiratory viruses on antibiotic use: theory and practice. Pediatr Pulmonol 46 : 428 434.[PubMed]
98. Esposito S, Marchisio P, Morelli P, Crovari P, Principi N . 2003. Effect of a rapid influenza diagnosis. Arch Dis Child 88 : 525 526.[PubMed]
99. Doan Q, Enarson P, Kissoon N, Klassen TP, Johnson DW . 2012. Rapid viral diagnosis for acute febrile respiratory illness in children in the Emergency Department. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 5 : CD006452.[PubMed]
100. Bonner AB, Monroe KW, Talley LI, Klasner AE, Kimberlin DW . 2003. Impact of the rapid diagnosis of influenza on physician decision-making and patient management in the pediatric emergency department: results of a randomized, prospective, controlled trial. Pediatrics 112 : 363 367.[PubMed]
101. Doan QH, Kissoon N, Dobson S, Whitehouse S, Cochrane D, Schmidt B, Thomas E . 2009. A randomized, controlled trial of the impact of early and rapid diagnosis of viral infections in children brought to an emergency department with febrile respiratory tract illnesses. J Pediatr 154 : 91 95.[PubMed]
102. Poehling KA, Zhu Y, Tang YW, Edwards K . 2006. Accuracy and impact of a point-of-care rapid influenza test in young children with respiratory illnesses. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 160 : 713 718.[PubMed]
103. Iyer SB, Gerber MA, Pomerantz WJ, Mortensen JE, Ruddy RM . 2006. Effect of point-of-care influenza testing on management of febrile children. Acad Emerg Med 13 : 1259 1268[PubMed]
104. Wishaupt JO, Russcher A, Smeets LC, Versteegh FG, Hartwig NG . 2011. Clinical impact of RT-PCR for pediatric acute respiratory infections: a controlled clinical trial. Pediatrics 128 : e1113 e1120.[PubMed]
105. Cohen R, Thollot F, Lécuyer A, Koskas M, Touitou R, Boucherat M, d'Athis P, Corrard F, Pecking M, de La Rocque F . 2007. Impact of the rapid diagnosis downtown in the assumption of responsibility of the children in period of influenza. (In French). Arch Pediatr 14 : 926 931[CrossRef].[PubMed]
106. Oosterheert JJ, van Loon AM, Schuurman R, Hoepelman AI, Hak E, Thijsen S, Nossent G, Schneider MM, Hustinx WM, Bonten MJ . 2005. Impact of rapid detection of viral and atypical bacterial pathogens by real-time polymerase chain reaction for patients with lower respiratory tract infection. Clin Infect Dis 41 : 1438 1444.[PubMed]
107. Hakki M, Strasfeld LM, Townes JM . 2014. Predictive value of testing nasopharyngeal samples for respiratory viruses in the setting of lower respiratory tract disease. J Clin Microbiol 52 : 4020 4022.[PubMed]
108. Azadeh N, Sakata KK, Brighton AM, Vikram HR, Grys TE . 2015. FilmArray Respiratory Panel Assay: comparison of nasopharyngeal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage samples. J Clin Microbiol 53 : 3784 3787.[PubMed]
109. Chan KH, Peiris JS, Lim W, Nicholls JM, Chiu SS . 2008. Comparison of nasopharyngeal flocked swabs and aspirates for rapid diagnosis of respiratory viruses in children. J Clin Virol 42 : 65 69.[PubMed]
110. Öhrmalm L, Wong M, Rotzén-Östlund M, Norbeck O, Broliden K, Tolfvenstam T . 2010. Flocked nasal swab versus nasopharyngeal aspirate for detection of respiratory tract viruses in immunocompromised adults: a matched comparative study. BMC Infect Dis 10 : 340 343.[PubMed]
111. Hernes SS, Quarsten H, Hamre R, Hagen E, Bjorvatn B, Bakke PS . 2013. A comparison of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabbing for the detection of influenza virus by real-time PCR. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 32 : 381 385.[PubMed]
112. Dawood FS, Jara J, Estripeaut D, Vergara O, Luciani K, Corro M, de León T, Saldaña R, Castillo Baires JM, Rauda-Flores R, Cazares RA, Brizuela de Fuentes YS, Franco D, Gaitan M, Schneider E, Berman L, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Widdowson MA. 2015. What is the added benefit of oropharyngeal swabs compared to nasal swabs alone for respiratory virus detection in hospitalized children aged <10 years? J Infect Dis 212 : 1600 1603.
113. Branche AR, Walsh EE, Formica MA, Falsey AR . 2014. Detection of respiratory viruses in sputum from adults by use of automated multiplex PCR. J Clin Microbiol 52 : 3590 3596.[PubMed]
114. Campbell AP, Chien JW, Kuypers J, Englund JA, Wald A, Guthrie KA, Corey L, Boeckh M . 2010. Respiratory virus pneumonia after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT): associations between viral load in bronchoalveolar lavage samples, viral RNA detection in serum samples, and clinical outcomes of HCT. J Infect Dis 201 : 1404 1413.[PubMed]
115. Fuji N, Suzuki A, Lupisan S, Sombrero L, Galang H, Kamigaki T, Tamaki R, Saito M, Aniceto R, Olveda R, Oshitani H . 2011. Detection of human rhinovirus C viral genome in blood among children with severe respiratory infections in the Philippines. PLoS One 6 : e27247.[PubMed]
116. Tse H, To KK, Wen X, Chen H, Chan KH, Tsoi HW, Li IW, Yuen KY . 2011. Clinical and virological factors associated with viremia in pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus infection. PLoS One 6 : e22534.[PubMed]
117. Self WH, Williams DJ, Zhu Y, Ampofo K, Pavia AT, Chappell JD, Hymas WC, Stockmann C, Bramley AM, Schneider E, Erdman D, Finelli L, Jain S, Edwards KM, Grijalva CG . 2016. Respiratory viral detection in children and adults: comparing asymptomatic controls and patients with community-acquired pneumonia. J Infect Dis 213 : 584 591.[PubMed]
118. Ralston SL, Lieberthal AS, Meissner HC, Alverson BK, Baley JE, Gadomski AM, Johnson DW, Light MJ, Maraqa NF, Mendonca EA, Phelan KJ, Zorc JJ, Stanko-Lopp D, Brown MA, Nathanson I, Rosenblum E, Sayles III S, Hernandez-Cancio S. 2014. Clinical practice guideline: the diagnosis, management, and prevention of bronchiolitis. Pediatrics 134: e1474 502.
119. Mills JM, Harper J, Broomfield D, Templeton KE . 2011. Rapid testing for respiratory syncytial virus in a paediatric emergency department: benefits for infection control and bed management. J Hosp Infect 77 : 248 251.[PubMed]
120. Song E, Wang H, Kajon AE, Salamon D, Dong S, Ramilo O, Leber A, Jaggi P . 2016. Diagnosis of Pediatric Acute Adenovirus Infections: Is a Positive PCR Sufficient? Pediatr Infect Dis J Mar 11; Epub ahead of print.[PubMed]


Generic image for table

Relative importance of major respiratory viruses in upper and lower respiratory tract disease

Citation: Robinson C, Loeffelholz M, Pinsky B. 2016. Respiratory Viruses, p 255-276. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch19

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error