Chapter 23 : Hepatitis A and E Viruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Hepatitis A and E Viruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819156/9781555819149.ch23-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819156/9781555819149.ch23-2.gif


Viral hepatitis refers to inflammation of the liver caused by several viral agents, including hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), D (HDV), and E (HEV) viruses. Generally, HAV and HEV are associated with acute, self-limited infection; however, severe and protracted disease can develop. These nonenveloped viruses have independently evolved interesting mechanisms aimed at evading the immune response and guaranteeing survival in the host. These viruses are phylogenetically unrelated but share several similarities. The genomes from both viruses are single-stranded, positive-polarity RNA. The viruses primarily infect the liver, cause acute infection, and are shed in feces. Moreover, the clinical manifestations from HAV and HEV infection are undistinguishable and require specific laboratory tests for each virus. Despite the similarities exhibited by these viruses, differences in the epidemiology of the respective diseases result in distinctive distribution patterns worldwide.

Citation: Vaughan G, Purdy M. 2016. Hepatitis A and E Viruses, p 329-339. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch23
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

The composition of the HAV genome is depicted. All structural and nonstructural proteins are color coded and their known functions are also described. The nucleotide variability along the entire genome is also presented.

Citation: Vaughan G, Purdy M. 2016. Hepatitis A and E Viruses, p 329-339. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch23
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Virological, immunological, and biochemical events during the course of experimental infections of cynomolgus macaques with hepatitis E virus.

Citation: Vaughan G, Purdy M. 2016. Hepatitis A and E Viruses, p 329-339. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch23
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3

Virologic, immunological, and biochemical events during the course of experimental hepatitis A virus infection (adapted from reference ( ) with permission.)

Citation: Vaughan G, Purdy M. 2016. Hepatitis A and E Viruses, p 329-339. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch23
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Krugman S, Ward R, Giles JP, Bodansky O, Jacobs AM . 1959. Infectious hepatitis: detection of virus during the incubation period and in clinically inapparent infection. N Engl J Med 261 : 729 734.[PubMed]
2. Nainan OV, Xia G, Vaughan G, Margolis HS . 2006. Diagnosis of hepatitis a virus infection: a molecular approach. Clin Microbiol Rev 19 : 63 79.[PubMed]
3. Hollinger FB, Martin A, . 2013. Hepatitis A Virus, p 551 581. In Knipe DM, Howley PM (ed), Fields Virology, 6th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, New York.
4. Anthony SJ, St Leger JA, Liang E, Hicks AL, Sanchez-Leon MD, Jain K, Lefkowitch JH, Navarrete-Macias I, Knowles N, Goldstein T, Pugliares K, Ip HS, Rowles T, Lipkin WI . 2015. Discovery of a novel hepatovirus ( Phopivirus of seals) related to human Hepatitis A Virus. MBio 6 : e01180 15.[PubMed]
5. Feng Z, Hensley L, McKnight KL, Hu F, Madden V, Ping L, Jeong SH, Walker C, Lanford RE, Lemon SM . 2013. A pathogenic picornavirus acquires an envelope by hijacking cellular membranes. Nature 496 : 367 371.[PubMed]
6. Cohen JI, Ticehurst JR, Purcell RH, Buckler-White A, Baroudy BM . 1987. Complete nucleotide sequence of wild-type hepatitis A virus: comparison with different strains of hepatitis A virus and other picornaviruses. J Virol 61 : 50 59.[PubMed]
7. Probst C, Jecht M, Gauss-Müller V . 1999. Intrinsic signals for the assembly of hepatitis A virus particles. Role of structural proteins VP4 and 2A. J Biol Chem 274 : 4527 4531.[PubMed]
8. Probst C, Jecht M, Gauss-Müller V . 1998. Processing of proteinase precursors and their effect on hepatitis A virus particle formation. J Virol 72 : 8013 8020.[PubMed]
9. Schultheiss T, Kusov YY, Gauss-Müller V . 1994. Proteinase 3C of hepatitis A virus (HAV) cleaves the HAV polyprotein P2-P3 at all sites including VP1/2A and 2A/2B. Virology 198 : 275 281.
10. Jecht M, Probst C, Gauss-Müller V . 1998. Membrane permeability induced by hepatitis A virus proteins 2B and 2BC and proteolytic processing of HAV 2BC. Virology 252 : 218 227.[PubMed]
11. Gorbalenya AE, Koonin EV . 1989. Viral proteins containing the purine NTP-binding sequence pattern. Nucleic Acids Res 17 : 8413 8440.[PubMed]
12. Yang Y, Liang Y, Qu L, Chen Z, Yi M, Li K, Lemon SM . 2007. Disruption of innate immunity due to mitochondrial targeting of a picornaviral protease precursor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104 : 7253 7258.[PubMed]
13. Rossmann MG, Arnold E, Erickson JW, Frankenberger EA, Griffith JP, Hecht H-J, Johnson JE, Kamer G, Luo M, Mosser AG, Rueckert RR, Sherry B, Vriend G . 1985. Structure of a human common cold virus and functional relationship to other picornaviruses. Nature 317 : 145 153.[PubMed]
14. Costa-Mattioli M, Cristina J, Romero H, Perez-Bercof R, Casane D, Colina R, Garcia L, Vega I, Glikman G, Romanowsky V, Castello A, Nicand E, Gassin M, Billaudel S, Ferré V . 2002. Molecular evolution of hepatitis A virus: a new classification based on the complete VP1 protein. J Virol 76 : 9516 9525.[PubMed]
15. Pérez-Sautu U, Costafreda MI, Lite J, Sala R, Barrabeig I, Bosch A, Pintó RM . 2011. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis A virus infections in Catalonia, Spain, 2005–2009: circulation of newly emerging strains. J Clin Virol 52 : 98 102.[PubMed]
16. Viswanathan R . 1957. Infectious hepatitis in New Delhi (1955–56): a critical study; epidemiology. Indian J Med Res 45 : 1 30.[PubMed]
17. Bradley DW, Krawczynski K, Purdy MA, . 1993. Epidemiology, natural history and experimental models, p 379 383. In Zuckerman AJ, Thomas HC (ed), Viral hepatitis: Scientific basis and clinical management. The Bath Press, Avon.
18. Teo C-G . 2012. Fatal outbreaks of jaundice in pregnancy and the epidemic history of hepatitis E. Epidemiol Infect 140 : 767 787.[PubMed]
19. Reyes GR, Purdy MA, Kim JP, Luk KC, Young LM, Fry KE, Bradley DW . 1990. Isolation of a cDNA from the virus responsible for enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. Science 247 : 1335 1339.[PubMed]
20. Aggarwal R, Kamili S, Spelbring J, Krawczynski K . 2001. Experimental studies on subclinical hepatitis E virus infection in cynomolgus macaques. J Infect Dis 184 : 1380 1385.[PubMed]
21. Dalton HR, Keane FE, Bendall R, Mathew J, Ijaz S . 2011. Treatment of chronic hepatitis E in a patient with HIV infection. Ann Intern Med 155 : 479 480.[PubMed]
22. Kamar N, Bendall RP, Peron JM, Cintas P, Prudhomme L, Mansuy JM, Rostaing L, Keane F, Ijaz S, Izopet J, Dalton HR . 2011. Hepatitis E virus and neurologic disorders. Emerg Infect Dis 17 : 173 179.[PubMed]
23. Zhou X, de Man RA, de Knegt RJ, Metselaar HJ, Peppelenbosch MP, Pan Q . 2013. Epidemiology and management of chronic hepatitis E infection in solid organ transplantation: a comprehensive literature review. Rev Med Virol 23 : 295 304.[PubMed]
24. Nagashima S, Takahashi M, Jirintai S, Tanggis , Kobayashi T, Nishizawa T, Okamoto H . 2014. The membrane on the surface of hepatitis E virus particles is derived from the intracellular membrane and contains trans-Golgi network protein 2. Arch Virol 159 : 979 991.[PubMed]
25. Smith DB, Simmonds P, members of the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses Hepeviridae Study Group, Jameel S, Emerson SU, Harrison TJ, Meng X-J, Okamoto H, Van der Poel WHM, Purdy MA . 2015. Consensus proposals for classification of the family Hepeviridae. J Gen Virol 96 : 1191 1192.[PubMed]
26. Lee G-H, Tan B-H, Teo EC-Y, Lim S-G, Dan Y-Y, Wee A, Aw PPK, Zhu Y, Hibberd ML, Tan C-K, Purdy MA, Teo C-G . 2016. Chronic Infection With Camelid Hepatitis E Virus in a Liver-transplant Recipient Who Regularly Consumes Camel Meat and Milk. Gastroenterology ahead of print.
27. Wasley A, Fiore A, Bell BP . 2006. Hepatitis A in the era of vaccination. Epidemiol Rev 28 : 101 111.[PubMed]
28. Vaughan G, Goncalves Rossi LM, Forbi JC, de Paula VS, Purdy MA, Xia G, Khudyakov YE . 2013. Hepatitis A virus: Host interactions, molecular epidemiology and evolution. Infection, genetics and evolution. Infect Genet Evol 21 : 227 243.[PubMed]
29. Nainan OV, Armstrong GL, Han XH, Williams I, Bell BP, Margolis HS . 2005. Hepatitis a molecular epidemiology in the United States, 1996–1997: sources of infection and implications of vaccination policy. J Infect Dis 191 : 957 963.[PubMed]
30. Amon JJ, Devasia R, Xia G, Nainan OV, Hall S, Lawson B, Wolthuis JS, Macdonald PD, Shepard CW, Williams IT, Armstrong GL, Gabel JA, Erwin P, Sheeler L, Kuhnert W, Patel P, Vaughan G, Weltman A, Craig AS, Bell BP, Fiore A . 2005. Molecular epidemiology of foodborne hepatitis a outbreaks in the United States, 2003. J Infect Dis 192 : 1323 1330.[PubMed]
31. Dentinger CM, Bower WA, Nainan OV, Cotter SM, Myers G, Dubusky LM, Fowler S, Salehi ED, Bell BP . 2001. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with green onions. J Infect Dis 183 : 1273 1276.[PubMed]
32. Wheeler C, Vogt TM, Armstrong GL, Vaughan G, Weltman A, Nainan OV, Dato V, Xia G, Waller K, Amon J, Lee TM, Highbaugh-Battle A, Hembree C, Evenson S, Ruta MA, Williams IT, Fiore AE, Bell BP . 2005. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with green onions. N Engl J Med 353 : 890 897.[PubMed]
33. Bialek SR, George PA, Xia GL, Glatzer MB, Motes ML, Veazey JE, Hammond RM, Jones T, Shieh YC, Wamnes J, Vaughan G, Khudyakov Y, Fiore AE . 2007. Use of molecular epidemiology to confirm a multistate outbreak of hepatitis A caused by consumption of oysters. Clin Infect Dis 44 : 838 840.[PubMed]
34. Desenclos JC, Klontz KC, Wilder MH, Nainan OV, Margolis HS, Gunn RA . 1991. A multistate outbreak of hepatitis A caused by the consumption of raw oysters. Am J Public Health 81 : 1268 1272.[PubMed]
35. Shieh YC, Khudyakov YE, Xia G, Ganova-Raeva LM, Khambaty FM, Woods JW, Veazey JE, Motes ML, Glatzer MB, Bialek SR, Fiore AE . 2007. Molecular confirmation of oysters as the vector for hepatitis A in a 2005 multistate outbreak. J Food Prot 70 : 145 150.[PubMed]
36. Halliday ML, Kang LY, Zhou TK, Hu MD, Pan QC, Fu TY, Huang YS, Hu SL . 1991. An epidemic of hepatitis A attributable to the ingestion of raw clams in Shanghai, China. J Infect Dis 164 : 852 859.[PubMed]
37. Bordi L, Rozera G, Scognamiglio P, Minosse C, Loffredo M, Antinori A, Narciso P, Ippolito G, Girardi E, Capobianchi MR GEAS Group . 2012. Monophyletic outbreak of Hepatitis A involving HIV-infected men who have sex with men, Rome, Italy 2008–2009. J Clin Virol 54 : 26 29.[PubMed]
38. Cotter SM, Sansom S, Long T, Koch E, Kellerman S, Smith F, Averhoff F, Bell BP . 2003. Outbreak of hepatitis A among men who have sex with men: implications for hepatitis A vaccination strategies. J Infect Dis 187 : 1235 1240.[PubMed]
39. Spada E, Genovese D, Tosti ME, Mariano A, Cuccuini M, Proietti L, Giuli CD, Lavagna A, Crapa GE, Morace G, Taffon S, Mele A, Rezza G, Rapicetta M . 2005. An outbreak of hepatitis A virus infection with a high case-fatality rate among injecting drug users. J Hepatol 43 : 958 964.[PubMed]
40. Mukomolov S, Kontio M, Zheleznova N, Jokinen S, Sinayskaya E, Stalevskaya A, Davidkin I . 2012. Increased circulation of hepatitis A virus genotype IIIA over the last decade in St Petersburg, Russia. J Med Virol 84 : 1528 1534.[PubMed]
41. Tallo T, Norder H, Tefanova V, Ott K, Ustina V, Prukk T, Solomonova O, Schmidt J, Zilmer K, Priimägi L, Krispin T, Magnius LO . 2003. Sequential changes in hepatitis A virus genotype distribution in Estonia during 1994 to 2001. J Med Virol 70 : 187 193.[PubMed]
42. Yun H, Lee HJ, Jang JH, Kim JS, Lee SH, Kim JW, Park SJ, Park YM, Hwang SG, Rim KS, Kang SK, Lee HS, Jeong SH . 2011. Hepatitis A virus genotype and its correlation with the clinical outcome of acute hepatitis A in Korea: 2006–2008. J Med Virol 83 : 2073 2081.[PubMed]
43. Ippagunta SK, Naik S, Sharma B, Aggarwal R . 2007. Presence of hepatitis E virus in sewage in Northern India: frequency and seasonal pattern. J Med Virol 79 : 1827 1831.[PubMed]
44. Feagins AR, Opriessnig T, Guenette DK, Halbur PG, Meng XJ . 2007. Detection and characterization of infectious Hepatitis E virus from commercial pig livers sold in local grocery stores in the USA. J Gen Virol 88 : 912 917.[PubMed]
45. Kaba M, Davoust B, Marié JL, Colson P . 2010. Detection of hepatitis E virus in wild boar (Sus scrofa) livers. Vet J 186 : 259 261.[PubMed]
46. Izopet J, Dubois M, Bertagnoli S, Lhomme S, Marchandeau S, Boucher S, Kamar N, Abravanel F, Guérin J-L . 2012. Hepatitis E virus strains in rabbits and evidence of a closely related strain in humans, France. Emerg Infect Dis 18 : 1274 1281.[PubMed]
47. Tei S, Kitajima N, Ohara S, Inoue Y, Miki M, Yamatani T, Yamabe H, Mishiro S, Kinoshita Y . 2004. Consumption of uncooked deer meat as a risk factor for hepatitis E virus infection: an age- and sex-matched case-control study. J Med Virol 74 : 67 70.
48. Meng X-J . 2013. Zoonotic and foodborne transmission of hepatitis E virus. Semin Liver Dis 33 : 41 49.[PubMed]
49. Said B, Ijaz S, Kafatos G, Booth L, Thomas HL, Walsh A, Ramsay M, Morgan D Hepatitis E Incident Investigation Team . 2009. Hepatitis E outbreak on cruise ship. Emerg Infect Dis 15 : 1738 1744.[PubMed]
50. Balayan MS, . 1991. HEV infection: Historical perspectives, global epidemiology, and clinical features, p 498 501. In Hollinger FB, Lemon SM, Margolis HS (ed), Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
51. Matsubayashi K, Kang JH, Sakata H, Takahashi K, Shindo M, Kato M, Sato S, Kato T, Nishimori H, Tsuji K, Maguchi H, Yoshida J, Maekubo H, Mishiro S, Ikeda H . 2008. A case of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E caused by blood from a donor infected with hepatitis E virus via zoonotic food-borne route. Transfusion 48 : 1368 1375.[PubMed]
52. Juhl D, Baylis SA, Blümel J, Görg S, Hennig H . 2014. Seroprevalence and incidence of hepatitis E virus infection in German blood donors. Transfusion 54 : 49 56.[PubMed]
53. Xu C, Wang RY, Schechterly CA, Ge S, Shih JW, Xia N-S, Luban NLC, Alter HJ . 2013. An assessment of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in US blood donors and recipients: no detectable HEV RNA in 1939 donors tested and no evidence for HEV transmission to 362 prospectively followed recipients. Transfusion 53 : 2505 2511.[PubMed]
54. Takeda H, Matsubayashi K, Sakata H, Sato S, Kato T, Hino S, Tadokoro K, Ikeda H . 2010. A nationwide survey for prevalence of hepatitis E virus antibody in qualified blood donors in Japan. Vox Sang 99 : 307 313.[PubMed]
55. Vollmer T, Diekmann J, Johne R, Eberhardt M, Knabbe C, Dreier J . 2012. Novel approach for detection of hepatitis E virus infection in German blood donors. J Clin Microbiol 50 : 2708 2713.[PubMed]
56. Keane F, Gompels M, Bendall R, Drayton R, Jennings L, Black J, Baragwanath G, Lin N, Henley W, Ngui S-L, Ijaz S, Dalton H . 2012. Hepatitis E virus coinfection in patients with HIV infection. HIV Med 13 : 83 88.[PubMed]
57. Abe K, Shikata T . 1982. Fulminant type A viral hepatitis in a chimpanzee. Acta Pathol Jpn 32 : 143 148.[PubMed]
58. Song D-Y, Zhuang H, Kang X-C, Liu X-M, Li Z, Hao W, Shi K-C, Hao F-M, Jia Q, Chen D-G, He Z-X, Ai Z-Z, . 1991. Hepatitis E in Hetian City: A report of 562 cases, p 528 529. In Hollinger FB, Lemon SM, Margolis HS (ed), Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
59. Williams TPE, Kasorndorkbua C, Halbur PG, Haqshenas G, Guenette DK, Toth TE, Meng XJ . 2001. Evidence of extrahepatic sites of replication of the hepatitis E virus in a swine model. J Clin Microbiol 39 : 3040 3046.[PubMed]
60. Kamar N, Rostaing L, Izopet J . 2013. Hepatitis E virus infection in immunosuppressed patients: natural history and therapy. Semin Liver Dis 33 : 62 70.[PubMed]
61. Bose PD, Das BC, Hazam RK, Kumar A, Medhi S, Kar P . 2014. Evidence of extrahepatic replication of hepatitis E virus in human placenta. J Gen Virol 95 : 1266 1271.[PubMed]
62. Yang L, Kiyohara T, Kanda T, Imazeki F, Fujiwara K, Gauss-Müller V, Ishii K, Wakita T, Yokosuka O . 2010. Inhibitory effects on HAV IRES-mediated translation and replication by a combination of amantadine and interferon-alpha. Virol J 7 : 212.[PubMed]
63. Hoagland CL, Shank RE . 1946. Infectious hepatitis; a review of 200 cases. J Am Med Assoc 130 : 615 621.[PubMed]
64. Robbins A, Lambert D, Ehrhard F, Brodard V, Hentzien M, Lebrun D, Nguyen Y, Tabary T, Peron JM, Izopet J, Bani-Sadr F . 2014. Severe acute hepatitis E in an HIV infected patient: successful treatment with ribavirin. J Clin Virol 60 : 422 423.[PubMed]
65. Barnaud E, Rogée S, Garry P, Rose N, Pavio N . 2012. Thermal inactivation of infectious hepatitis E virus in experimentally contaminated food. Appl Environ Microbiol 78 : 5153 5159.[PubMed]
66. Kamili S . 2011. Toward the development of a hepatitis E vaccine. Virus Res 161 : 93 100.[PubMed]
67. Wei M, Zhang X, Yu H, Tang Z-M, Wang K, Li Z, Zheng Z, Li S, Zhang J, Xia N, Zhao Q . 2014. Bacteria expressed hepatitis E virus capsid proteins maintain virion-like epitopes. Vaccine 32 : 2859 2865.[PubMed]
68. Zhu FC, Zhang J, Zhang XF, Zhou C, Wang ZZ, Huang SJ, Wang H, Yang CL, Jiang HM, Cai JP, Wang YJ, Ai X, Hu YM, Tang Q, Yao X, Yan Q, Xian YL, Wu T, Li YM, Miao J, Ng MH, Shih JW, Xia NS . 2010. Efficacy and safety of a recombinant hepatitis E vaccine in healthy adults: a large-scale, randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet 376 : 895 902.[PubMed]
69. Cuthbert JA . 2001. Hepatitis A: old and new. Clin Microbiol Rev 14 : 38 58.[PubMed]
70. Cromeans T, Sobsey MD, Fields HA . 1987. Development of a plaque assay for a cytopathic, rapidly replicating isolate of hepatitis A virus. J Med Virol 22 : 45 56.[PubMed]
71. Seelig R, Pott G, Seelig HP, Liehr H, Metzger P, Waldherr R . 1984. Virus-binding activity of fibronectin: masking of hepatitis A virus. J Virol Methods 8 : 335 347.[PubMed]
72. Margolis HS, Nainan OV . 1990. Identification of virus components in circulating immune complexes isolated during hepatitis A virus infection. Hepatology 11 : 31 37.[PubMed]
73. Vaughan G, Forbi JC, Xia GL, Fonseca-Ford M, Vazquez R, Khudyakov YE, Montiel S, Waterman S, Alpuche C, Gonçalves Rossi LM, Luna N . 2014. Full-length genome characterization and genetic relatedness analysis of hepatitis A virus outbreak strains associated with acute liver failure among children. J Med Virol 86 : 202 208.[PubMed]
74. Vaughan G, Xia G, Forbi JC, Purdy MA, Rossi LM, Spradling PR, Khudyakov YE . 2013. Genetic relatedness among hepatitis A virus strains associated with food-borne outbreaks. PLoS One 8 : e74546.[PubMed]
75. Desbois D, Couturier E, Mackiewicz V, Graube A, Letort MJ, Dussaix E, Roque-Afonso AM . 2010. Epidemiology and genetic characterization of hepatitis A virus genotype IIA. J Clin Microbiol 48 : 3306 3315.[PubMed]
76. Belalov IS, Isaeva OV, Lukashev AN . 2011. Recombination in hepatitis A virus: evidence for reproductive isolation of genotypes. J Gen Virol 92 : 860 872.[PubMed]
77. Joshi MS, Walimbe AM, Chitambar SD . 2008. Evaluation of genomic regions of hepatitis A virus for phylogenetic analysis: suitability of the 2C region for genotyping. J Virol Methods 153 : 36 42.[PubMed]
78. Costa-Mattioli M, Di Napoli A, Ferré V, Billaudel S, Perez-Bercoff R, Cristina J . 2003. Genetic variability of hepatitis A virus. J Gen Virol 84 : 3191 3201.
79. Robertson BH, Jansen RW, Khanna B, Totsuka A, Nainan OV, Siegl G, Widell A, Margolis HS, Isomura S, Ito K, Ishizu T, Moritsugu Y, Lemon SM . 1992. Genetic relatedness of hepatitis A virus strains recovered from different geographical regions. J Gen Virol 73 : 1365 1377.[PubMed]
80. Escobar-Gutiérrez A, Cruz-Rivera M, Ruiz-Tovar K, Vaughan G . 2012. Genetic relatedness among Japanese HAV isolates, 2010. J Clin Virol 54 : 287 288.[PubMed]
81. Aggarwal R . 2012. Diagnosis of hepatitis E. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 10 : 24 33.
82. Drobeniuc J, Meng J, Reuter G, Greene-Montfort T, Khudyakova N, Dimitrova Z, Kamili S, Teo CG . 2010. Serologic assays specific to immunoglobulin M antibodies against hepatitis E virus: pangenotypic evaluation of performances. Clin Infect Dis 51 : e24 e27.[PubMed]
83. Ferguson M, Walker D, Mast E, Fields H . 2002. Report of a collaborative study to assess the suitability of a reference reagent for antibodies to hepatitis E virus. Biologicals 30 : 43 48.[PubMed]
84. Bendall R, Ellis V, Ijaz S, Ali R, Dalton H . 2010. A comparison of two commercially available anti-HEV IgG kits and a re-evaluation of anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence data in developed countries. J Med Virol 82 : 799 805.[PubMed]
85. Pas SD, Streefkerk RH, Pronk M, de Man RA, Beersma MF, Osterhaus AD, van der Eijk AA . 2013. Diagnostic performance of selected commercial HEV IgM and IgG ELISAs for immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. J Clin Virol 58 : 629 634.[PubMed]
86. Hyams C, Mabayoje DA, Copping R, Maranao D, Patel M, Labbett W, Haque T, Webster DP . 2014. Serological cross reactivity to CMV and EBV causes problems in the diagnosis of acute hepatitis E virus infection. J Med Virol 86 : 478 483.[PubMed]
87. Fogeda M, de Ory F, Avellón A, Echevarría JM . 2009. Differential diagnosis of hepatitis E virus, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection in patients with suspected hepatitis E. J Clin Virol 45 : 259 261.[PubMed]
88. Baylis SA, Hanschmann K-M, Blümel J, Nübling CM , on behalf of the HEV Collaborative Study Group . 2011. Standardization of hepatitis E virus (HEV) nucleic acid amplification technique-based assays: an initial study to evaluate a panel of HEV strains and investigate laboratory performance. J Clin Microbiol 49 : 1234 1239.[PubMed]
89. Lan X, Yang B, Li BY, Yin XP, Li XR, Liu JX . 2009. Reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of hepatitis E virus. J Clin Microbiol 47 : 2304 2306.[PubMed]
90. Margolis HS, Nainan OV, Krawczynski K, Bradley DW, Ebert JW, Spelbring J, Fields HA, Maynard JE . 1988. Appearance of immune complexes during experimental hepatitis A infection in chimpanzees. J Med Virol 26 : 315 326.[PubMed]

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error