Chapter 30 : Human Papillomaviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Human Papillomaviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819156/9781555819149.ch30-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819156/9781555819149.ch30-2.gif


Papillomaviruses are species specific; in humans they infect a number of sites such as the skin, mouth, anus, conjunctiva, and lower genital tracts of both males and females. The majority of infections, no matter the site, are typically asymptomatic and subclinical. Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease. It has been established and accepted that oncogenic or high-risk HPV types are the main cause of cervical cancer in women and can cause other cancers such as vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and oropharyngeal cancer. Although persistent infection with a high-risk HPV type is necessary for the development of cervical cancer, many women will spontaneously clear the infection and are subsequently not at risk for developing cancer in the future. It is known that greater than 70% of cervical cancer cases are due to HPV types 16 and 18, and testing for HPV along with Pap smear testing is a widely accepted approach for cervical cancer screening. Several organizations have developed guidelines for cervical cancer screening in United States (US) including the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), American Cancer Society (ACS), the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and the American Society of Clinical Pathology (ASCP). Recent data suggest that HPV testing can be used as the primary screen for cervical cancer screening as algorithms continue to evolve around clinical patient management. Prevention of cervical cancer and other cancers is now feasible because of the availability of HPV vaccines.

Citation: Novak-Weekley S, Pretorius R. 2016. Human Papillomaviruses, p 413-426. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch30
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Bernard HU, Burk RD, Chen Z, van Doorslaer K, zur Hausen H, de Villiers EM . 2010. Classification of papillomaviruses (PVs) based on 189 PV types and proposal of taxonomic amendments. Virology 401 : 70 79.[PubMed]
2. Bzhalava D, Eklund C, Dillner J . 2015. International standardization and classification of human papillomavirus types. Virology 476 : 341 344.[PubMed]
3. Egawa N, Egawa K, Griffin H, Doorbar J . 2015. Human papillomaviruses; epithelial tropisms, and the development of neoplasia. Viruses 7 : 3863 3890.[PubMed]
4. Harari A, Chen Z, Burk RD . 2014. Human papillomavirus genomics: past, present and future. Curr Probl Dermatol 45 : 1 18.[PubMed]
5. de Villiers EM, Fauquet C, Broker TR, Bernard HU, zur Hausen H . 2004. Classification of papillomaviruses. Virology 324 : 17 27.[PubMed]
6. Zheng ZM, Baker CC. 2006. Papillomavirus genome structure, expression, and post-transcriptional regulation. Frontiers in Bioscience. 11: 2286 2302.
7. Münger K, Baldwin A, Edwards KM, Hayakawa H, Nguyen CL, Owens M, Grace M, Huh K . 2004. Mechanisms of human papillomavirus-induced oncogenesis. J Virol 78 : 11451 11460.[PubMed]
8. Steenbergen RD, de Wilde J, Wilting SM, Brink AA, Snijders PJ, Meijer CJ. 2005. HPV-mediated transformation of the anogenital tract. J Clin Virol 32 : Suppl 1: S25 33.
9. zur Hausen H . 2002. Papillomaviruses and cancer: from basic studies to clinical application. Nat Rev Cancer 2 : 342 350.[PubMed]
10. Strauss MJ, Shaw EW, Bunting H, Melnick JL . 1949. Crystalline virus-like particles from skin papillomas characterized by intranuclear inclusion bodies. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 72 : 46 50.[PubMed]
11. Rowson KE, Mahy BW . 1967. Human papova (wart) virus. Bacteriol Rev 31 : 110 131.[PubMed]
12. Bosch FX, Lorincz A, Muñoz N, Meijer CJ, Shah KV . 2002. The causal relation between human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. J Clin Pathol 55 : 244 265.[PubMed]
13. Muñoz N, Bosch FX, de Sanjosé S, Herrero R, Castellsagué X, Shah KV, Snijders PJ, Meijer CJ International Agency for Research on Cancer Multicenter Cervical Cancer Study Group . 2003. Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer. N Engl J Med 348 : 518 527.[PubMed]
14. Clifford GM, Smith JS, Plummer M, Muñoz N, Franceschi S . 2003. Human papillomavirus types in invasive cervical cancer worldwide: a meta-analysis. Br J Cancer 88 : 63 73.[PubMed]
15. Bosch FX, de Sanjosé S . 2003. Chapter 1: human papillomavirus and cervical cancer—burden and assessment of causality. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2003 ( 31 ) : 3 13.[PubMed]
16. Bäfverstedt B . 1967. Condylomata acuminata—past and present. Acta Derm Venereol 47 : 376 381.[PubMed]
17. Centers for Disease CaP . 2015. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine -Preventable Diseases, 13th ed. Public Health Foundation, Washington, D.C..
18. Antonsson A, Karanfilovska S, Lindqvist PG, Hansson BG . 2003. General acquisition of human papillomavirus infections of skin occurs in early infancy. J Clin Microbiol 41 : 2509 2514.[PubMed]
19. Castellsagué X, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, Meijer CJ, Shah KV, de Sanjose S, Eluf-Neto J, Ngelangel CA, Chichareon S, Smith JS, Herrero R, Moreno V, Franceschi S International Agency for Research on Cancer Multicenter Cervical Cancer Study Group . 2002. Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners. N Engl J Med 346 : 1105 1112.[PubMed]
20. de Sanjose S, Almirall R, Lloveras B, Font R, Diaz M, Muñoz N, Català I, Meijer CJ, Snijders PJ, Herrero R, Bosch FX . 2003. Cervical human papillomavirus infection in the female population in Barcelona, Spain. Sex Transm Dis 30 : 788 793.[PubMed]
21. Winer RL, Hughes JP, Feng Q, O'Reilly S, Kiviat NB, Holmes KK, Koutsky LA . 2006. Condom use and the risk of genital human papillomavirus infection in young women. N Engl J Med 354 : 2645 2654.[PubMed]
22. Partridge JM, Hughes JP, Feng Q, Winer RL, Weaver BA, Xi LF, Stern ME, Lee SK, O'Reilly SF, Hawes SE, Kiviat NB, Koutsky LA . 2007. Genital human papillomavirus infection in men: incidence and risk factors in a cohort of university students. J Infect Dis 196 : 1128 1136.[PubMed]
23. de Pokomandy A, Rouleau D, Ghattas G, Vézina S, Coté P, Macleod J, Allaire G, Franco EL, Coutlée F Group HS, HIPVIRG Study Group . 2009. Prevalence, clearance, and incidence of anal human papillomavirus infection in HIV-infected men: the HIPVIRG cohort study. J Infect Dis 199 : 965 973.[PubMed]
24. Videla S, Darwich L, Cañadas MP, Coll J, Piñol M, García-Cuyás F, Molina-Lopez RA, Cobarsi P, Clotet B, Sirera G HIV-HPV Study Group . 2013. Natural history of human papillomavirus infections involving anal, penile, and oral sites among HIV-positive men. Sex Transm Dis 40 : 3 10.[PubMed]
25. Franceschi S, Herrero R, Clifford GM, Snijders PJ, Arslan A, Anh PT, Bosch FX, Ferreccio C, Hieu NT, Lazcano-Ponce E, Matos E, Molano M, Qiao YL, Rajkumar R, Ronco G, de Sanjosé S, Shin HR, Sukvirach S, Thomas JO, Meijer CJ, Muñoz N . 2006. Variations in the age-specific curves of human papillomavirus prevalence in women worldwide. Int J Cancer 119 : 2677 2684.[PubMed]
26. zur Hausen H . 2009. Papillomaviruses in the causation of human cancers—a brief historical account. Virology 384 : 260 265.[PubMed]
27. de Koning MN, Quint KD, Bruggink SC, Gussekloo J, Bouwes Bavinck JN, Feltkamp MC, Quint WG, Eekhof JA . 2015. High prevalence of cutaneous warts in elementary school children and the ubiquitous presence of wart-associated human papillomavirus on clinically normal skin. Br J Dermatol 172 : 196 201.[PubMed]
28. Bacelieri R, Johnson SM . 2005. Cutaneous warts: an evidence-based approach to therapy. Am Fam Physician 72 : 647 652.[PubMed]
29. Quint KD, Genders RE, de Koning MN, Borgogna C, Gariglio M, Bouwes Bavinck JN, Doorbar J, Feltkamp MC . 2015. Human beta-papillomavirus infection and keratinocyte carcinomas. J Pathol 235 : 342 354.[PubMed]
30. Burger B, Itin PH . 2014. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Curr Probl Dermatol 45 : 123 131.[PubMed]
31. Workowski KA, Bolan GA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . 2015. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep 64( RR-03) : 1 137.[PubMed]
32. zur Hausen H . 1977. Human papillomaviruses and their possible role in squamous cell carcinomas. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 78 : 1 30.[PubMed]
33. Dalianis T. 2014. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Presse Med 43: e429 e434.
34. de Villiers EM, Weidauer H, Otto H, zur Hausen H. Papillomavirus DNA in human tongue carcinomas. 1985 Int J Cancer 36 ( 5 ): 575 578.
35. Moore KA II, Mehta V . 2015. The Growing Epidemic of HPV-Positive Oropharyngeal Carcinoma: A Clinical Review for Primary Care Providers. J Am Board Fam Med 28 : 498 503.[PubMed]
36. Mounts P, Shah KV, Kashima H . 1982. Viral etiology of juvenile- and adult-onset squamous papilloma of the larynx. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79 : 5425 5429.[PubMed]
37. Fakhry C, Westra WH, Li S, Cmelak A, Ridge JA, Pinto H, Forastiere A, Gillison ML . 2008. Improved survival of patients with human papillomavirus-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in a prospective clinical trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 100 : 261 269.[PubMed]
38. Chaturvedi AK, Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, Hernandez BY, Xiao W, Kim E, Jiang B, Goodman MT, Sibug-Saber M, Cozen W, Liu L, Lynch CF, Wentzensen N, Jordan RC, Altekruse S, Anderson WF, Rosenberg PS, Gillison ML . 2011. Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States. J Clin Oncol 29 : 4294 4301.[PubMed]
39. Sanchez-Torices MS, Corrales-Millan R, Hijona-Elosegui JJ . 2015. Oropharyngeal perinatal colonization by human papillomavirus. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 67: 135 141.[PubMed]
40. Bosch FX, Manos MM, Muñoz N, Sherman M, Jansen AM, Peto J, Schiffman MH, Moreno V, Kurman R, Shah KV . 1995. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in cervical cancer: a worldwide perspective. International biological study on cervical cancer (IBSCC) Study Group. J Natl Cancer Inst 87 : 796 802.[PubMed]
41. Bouvard V, Baan R, Straif K, Grosse Y, Secretan B, El Ghissassi F, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Guha N, Freeman C, Galichet L, Cogliano V WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Working Group . 2009. A review of human carcinogens—Part B: biological agents. Lancet Oncol 10 : 321 322.[PubMed]
42. Schiffman M, Khan MJ, Solomon D, Herrero R, Wacholder S, Hildesheim A, Rodriguez AC, Bratti MC, Wheeler CM, Burk RD Group PEG, Group A, PEG Group, ALTS Group . 2005. A study of the impact of adding HPV types to cervical cancer screening and triage tests. J Natl Cancer Inst 97 : 147 150.[PubMed]
43. Khan MJ, Castle PE, Lorincz AT, Wacholder S, Sherman M, Scott DR, Rush BB, Glass AG, Schiffman M . 2005. The elevated 10-year risk of cervical precancer and cancer in women with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 or 18 and the possible utility of type-specific HPV testing in clinical practice. J Natl Cancer Inst 97 : 1072 1079.[PubMed]
44. Ikenberg H, Gissmann L, Gross G, Grussendorf-Conen EI, zur Hausen H. 1983. Human papillomavirus type-16-related DNA in genital Bowen's disease and in Bowenoid papulosis. Int J Cancer 32: 563 565.
45. Madsen BS, Jensen HL, van den Brule AJ, Wohlfahrt J, Frisch M. 2008. Risk factors for invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva and vagina—population-based case-control study in Denmark. Int J Cancer 122: 2827 2834.
46. Alkatout I, Schubert M, Garbrecht N, Weigel MT, Jonat W, Mundhenke C, Günther V . 2015. Vulvar cancer: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options. Int J Womens Health 7 : 305 313.[PubMed]
47. Ngan HY, Tsao SW, Liu SS, Stanley M . 1997. Abnormal expression and mutation of p53 in cervical cancer—a study at protein, RNA and DNA levels. Genitourin Med 73 : 54 58.[PubMed]
48. Frisch M, Fenger C, van den Brule AJ, Sørensen P, Meijer CJ, Walboomers JM, Adami HO, Melbye M, Glimelius B . 1999. Variants of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal and perianal skin and their relation to human papillomaviruses. Cancer Res 59 : 753 757.[PubMed]
49. Kleihues PS, Sobin LH . World Health Organization classification of tumors . 2000 . Cancer 88: 2887.
50. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . 2012. Measles—United States, 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 61 : 253257.[PubMed]
51. Wright TC Jr, Massad LS, Dunton CJ, Spitzer M, Wilkinson EJ, Solomon D 2006 American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology-sponsored Consensus Conference . 2007. 2006 consensus guidelines for the management of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or adenocarcinoma in situ. J Low Genit Tract Dis 11 : 223 239.[PubMed]
52. Joura EA, Giuliano AR, Iversen OE, Bouchard C, Mao C, Mehlsen J, Moreira ED Jr, Ngan Y, Petersen LK, Lazcano-Ponce E, Pitisuttithum P, Restrepo JA, Stuart G, Woelber L, Yang YC, Cuzick J, Garland SM, Huh W, Kjaer SK, Bautista OM, Chan IS, Chen J, Gesser R, Moeller E, Ritter M, Vuocolo S, Luxembourg A Broad Spectrum HPVVS, Broad Spectrum HPV Vaccine Study . 2015. A 9-valent HPV vaccine against infection and intraepithelial neoplasia in women. N Engl J Med 372 : 711 723
53. Petrosky E, Bocchini JA Jr, Hariri S, Chesson H, Curtis CR, Saraiya M, Unger ER, Markowitz LE Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . 2015. Use of 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: updated HPV vaccination recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 64 : 300 304.[PubMed]
54. Markowitz LE, Dunne EF, Saraiya M, Chesson HW, Curtis CR, Gee J, Bocchini JA Jr., Unger ER, Disease C, 2014. Human papillomavirus vaccination: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 63: 1 30.
55. Kash N, Lee MA, Kollipara R, Downing C, Guidry J, Tyring SK . 2015. Safety and Efficacy Data on Vaccines and Immunization to Human Papillomavirus. J Clin Med 4 : 614 633.[PubMed]
56. Reagan-Steiner S, Yankey D, Jeyarajah J, Elam-Evans LD, Singleton JA, Curtis CR, MacNeil J, Markowitz LE, Stokley S . 2015. National, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13–17 years—United States, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 64 : 784 792.[PubMed]
57. Cohen EL, Head KJ, McGladrey MJ, Hoover AG, Vanderpool RC, Bridger C, Carman A, Crosby RA, Darling E, Tucker-McLaughlin M, Winterbauer N . 2015. Designing for dissemination: lessons in message design from “1-2-3 pap.” Health Commun 30 : 196 207.[PubMed]
58. Vinzón SE, Rösl F . 2015. HPV vaccination for prevention of skin cancer. Hum Vaccin Immunother 11 : 353 357.[PubMed]
59. Mayrand MH, Duarte-Franco E, Rodrigues I, Walter SD, Hanley J, Ferenczy A, Ratnam S, Coutlée F, Franco EL Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial Study Group . 2007. Human papillomavirus DNA versus Papanicolaou screening tests for cervical cancer. N Engl J Med 357 : 1579 1588.[PubMed]
60. Ginocchio CC, Smith JS,. 2015. Human papillomaviruses, p. 1783 1802 In Jorgensen JH, , et al. (eds), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 11th ed. Washington, D.C., ASM Press.
61. Wright TC, Stoler MH, Behrens CM, Sharma A, Zhang G, Wright TL . 2015. Primary cervical cancer screening with human papillomavirus: end of study results from the ATHENA study using HPV as the first-line screening test. Gynecol Oncol 136 : 189 197.[PubMed]
62. Dzuba IG, Díaz EY, Allen B, Leonard YF, Lazcano Ponce EC, Shah KV, Bishai D, Lorincz A, Ferris D, Turnbull B, Hernández Avila M, Salmerón J . 2002. The acceptability of self-collected samples for HPV testing vs. the pap test as alternatives in cervical cancer screening. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 11 : 265 275.[PubMed]
63. Stewart DE, Gagliardi A, Johnston M, Howlett R, Barata P, Lewis N, Oliver T, Mai V HPV Self-collection Guidelines Panel . 2007. Self-collected samples for testing of oncogenic human papillomavirus: a systematic review. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 29 : 817 828.[PubMed]
64. Arbyn M, Verdoodt F, Snijders PJ, Verhoef VM, Suonio E, Dillner L, Minozzi S, Bellisario C, Banzi R, Zhao FH, Hillemanns P, Anttila A . 2014. Accuracy of human papillomavirus testing on self-collected versus clinician-collected samples: a meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol 15 : 172 183.[PubMed]
65. Snijders PJ, Verhoef VM, Arbyn M, Ogilvie G, Minozzi S, Banzi R, van Kemenade FJ, Heideman DA, Meijer CJ. 2013. High-risk HPV testing on self-sampled versus clinician-collected specimens: a review on the clinical accuracy and impact on population attendance in cervical cancer screening. Int J Cancer 132: 2223 2236.
66. Frati ER, Martinelli M, Fasoli E, Colzani D, Bianchi S, Binda S, Olivani P, Tanzi E. 2015. HPV Testing from dried urine spots as a tool for cervical cancer screening in low-income countries. BioMed Res Intl 1 5. Article ID 2833036.
67. Tanzi E, Bianchi S, Fasolo MM, Frati ER, Mazza F, Martinelli M, Colzani D, Beretta R, Zappa A, Orlando G . 2013. High performance of a new PCR-based urine assay for HPV-DNA detection and genotyping. J Med Virol 85 : 91 98.[PubMed]
68. Schiffman M, Solomon D . 2003. Findings to date from the ASCUS-LSIL Triage Study (ALTS). Arch Pathol Lab Med 127 : 946 949.[PubMed]
69. Solomon D, Schiffman M, Tarone R ALTS Study group . 2001. Comparison of three management strategies for patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance: baseline results from a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 93 : 293 299.[PubMed]
70. Manos MM, Kinney WK, Hurley LB, Sherman ME, Shieh-Ngai J, Kurman RJ, Ransley JE, Fetterman BJ, Hartinger JS, McIntosh KM, Pawlick GF, Hiatt RA . 1999. Identifying women with cervical neoplasia: using human papillomavirus DNA testing for equivocal Papanicolaou results. JAMA 281 : 1605 1610.[PubMed]
71. Massad LS, Einstein MH, Huh WK, Katki HA, Kinney WK, Schiffman M, Solomon D, Wentzensen N, Lawson HW 2012 ASCCP Consensus Guidelines Conference . 2013. 2012 updated consensus guidelines for the management of abnormal cervical cancer screening tests and cancer precursors. Obstet Gynecol 121 : 829 846.[PubMed]
72. Boers A, Wang R, Slagter-Menkema L, van Hemel BM, Ghyssaert H, van der Zee AG, Wisman GB, Schuuring E . 2014. Clinical validation of the Cervista HPV HR test according to the international guidelines for human papillomavirus test requirements for cervical cancer screening. J Clin Microbiol 52 : 4391 4393.[PubMed]
73. Wong AK, Chan RC, Nichols WS, Bose S . 2008. Human papillomavirus (HPV) in atypical squamous cervical cytology: the Invader HPV test as a new screening assay. J Clin Microbiol 46 : 869 875.[PubMed]
74. Nolte FS, Ribeiro-Nesbitt DG . 2014. Comparison of the Aptima and Cervista tests for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus in cervical cytology specimens. Am J Clin Pathol 142 : 561 566.[PubMed]
75. Kinney W, Stoler MH, Castle PE . 2010. Special commentary: patient safety and the next generation of HPV DNA tests. Am J Clin Pathol 134 : 193 199.[PubMed]
76. Boers A, Slagter-Menkema L, van Hemel BM, Belinson JL, Ruitenbeek T, Buikema HJ, Klip H, Ghyssaert H, van der Zee AG, de Bock GH, Wisman GB, Schuuring E . 2014. Comparing the Cervista HPV HR test and Hybrid Capture 2 assay in a Dutch screening population: improved specificity of the Cervista HPV HR test by changing the cut-off. PLoS One 9 : e101930.[PubMed]
77. Castle PE, Stoler MH, Wright TC Jr, Sharma A, Wright TL, Behrens CM . 2011. Performance of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and HPV16 or HPV18 genotyping for cervical cancer screening of women aged 25 years and older: a subanalysis of the ATHENA study. Lancet Oncol 12 : 880 890.[PubMed]
78. Rao A, Young S, Erlich H, Boyle S, Krevolin M, Sun R, Apple R, Behrens C . 2013. Development and characterization of the cobas human papillomavirus test. J Clin Microbiol 51 : 1478 1484.[PubMed]
79. Stoler MH, Wright TC Jr, Sharma A, Apple R, Gutekunst K, Wright TL Group AHS, ATHENA (Addressing THE Need for Advanced HPV Diagnostics) HPV Study Group . 2011. High-risk human papillomavirus testing in women with ASC-US cytology: results from the ATHENA HPV study. Am J Clin Pathol 135 : 468 475.[PubMed]
80. Huh WK, Ault KA, Chelmow D, Davey DD, Goulart RA, Garcia FA, Kinney WK, Massad LS, Mayeaux EJ, Saslow D, Schiffman M, Wentzensen N, Lawson HW, Einstein MH . 2015. Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: interim clinical guidance. Gynecol Oncol 136 : 178 182.[PubMed]
81. Iftner T, Becker S, Neis KJ, Castanon A, Iftner A, Holz B, Staebler A, Henes M, Rall K, Haedicke J, von Weyhern CH, Clad A, Brucker S, Sasieni P . 2015. Head-to-head comparison of the RNA-based Aptima human papillomavirus (HPV) assay and the DNA-based hybrid capture 2 HPV test in a routine screening population of women aged 30 to 60 years in Germany. J Clin Microbiol 53 : 2509 2516.[PubMed]
82. Castle PE, Eaton B, Reid J, Getman D, Dockter J . 2015. Comparison of human papillomavirus detection by Aptima HPV and cobas HPV tests in a population of women referred for colposcopy following detection of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance by Pap cytology. J Clin Microbiol 53 : 1277 1281.[PubMed]
83. Castle PE, Reid J, Dockter J, Getman D. 2015. The reliability of high-risk human papillomavirus detection by Aptima HPV assay in women with ASC-US cytology. J Clin Virol 69: 52 55.
84. Stoler MH, Wright TC Jr., Cuzick J, Dockter J, Reid JL, Getman D, Giachetti C. 2013. APTIMA HPV assay performance in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cytology results. Am J Obstet Gynecol 208: 144 e1-8.
85. Saslow D, Solomon D, Lawson HW, Killackey M, Kulasingam SL, Cain J, Garcia FA, Moriarty AT, Waxman AG, Wilbur DC, Wentzensen N, Downs LS Jr, Spitzer M, Moscicki AB, Franco EL, Stoler MH, Schiffman M, Castle PE, Myers ER American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, American Society for Clinical Pathology . 2012. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. Am J Clin Pathol 137 : 516 542.[PubMed]
86. Carter JJ, Koutsky LA, Hughes JP, Lee SK, Kuypers J, Kiviat N, Galloway DA . 2000. Comparison of human papillomavirus types 16, 18, and 6 capsid antibody responses following incident infection. J Infect Dis 181 : 1911 1919.[PubMed]
87. Carter JJ, Koutsky LA, Wipf GC, Christensen ND, Lee SK, Kuypers J, Kiviat N, Galloway DA . 1996. The natural history of human papillomavirus type 16 capsid antibodies among a cohort of university women. J Infect Dis 174 : 927 936.[PubMed]
88. Dillner J, Wiklund F, Lenner P, Eklund C, Frederiksson-Shanazarian V, Schiller JT, Hibma M, Hallmans G, Stendahl U. 1995. Antibodies against linear and conformational epitopes of human papillomavirus type 16 that independently associate with incident cervical cancer. Int J Cancer 60: 377 382.
89. Kirnbauer R, Hubbert NL, Wheeler CM, Becker TM, Lowy DR, Schiller JT . 1994. A virus-like particle enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detects serum antibodies in a majority of women infected with human papillomavirus type 16. J Natl Cancer Inst 86 : 494 499.[PubMed]
90. Harper DM, Franco EL, Wheeler C, Ferris DG, Jenkins D, Schuind A, Zahaf T, Innis B, Naud P, De Carvalho NS, Roteli-Martins CM, Teixeira J, Blatter MM, Korn AP, Quint W, Dubin G GlaxoSmithKline HPV Vaccine Study Group . 2004. Efficacy of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine in prevention of infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in young women: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 364 : 1757 1765.[PubMed]
91. Opalka D, Lachman CE, MacMullen SA, Jansen KU, Smith JF, Chirmule N, Esser MT . 2003. Simultaneous quantitation of antibodies to neutralizing epitopes on virus-like particles for human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16, and 18 by a multiplexed Luminex assay. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10 : 108 115.[PubMed]
92. Schiller JT, Lowy DR . 2009. Immunogenicity testing in human papillomavirus virus-like-particle vaccine trials. J Infect Dis 200 : 166 171.[PubMed]
93. Wentzensen N, Follansbee S, Borgonovo S, Tokugawa D, Schwartz L, Lorey TS, Sahasrabuddhe VV, Lamere B, Gage JC, Fetterman B, Darragh TM, Castle PE . 2012. Human papillomavirus genotyping, human papillomavirus mRNA expression, and p16/Ki-67 cytology to detect anal cancer precursors in HIV-infected MSM. AIDS 26 : 2185 2192.[PubMed]
94. Gustinucci D, Passamonti B, Cesarini E, Butera D, Palmieri EA, Bulletti S, Carlani A, Staiano M, D'Amico MR, D'Angelo V, Di Dato E, Martinelli N, Malaspina M, Spita N, Tintori B, Fulciniti F . 2012. Role of p16(INK4a) cytology testing as an adjunct to enhance the diagnostic specificity and accuracy in human papillomavirus-positive women within an organized cervical cancer screening program. Acta Cytol 56 : 506 514.[PubMed]
95. Waldstrøm M, Christensen RK, Ørnskov D . 2013. Evaluation of p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 dual stain in comparison with an mRNA human papillomavirus test on liquid-based cytology samples with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Cancer Cytopathol 121 : 136 145.[PubMed]
96. Darragh TM, Colgan TJ, Cox JT, Heller DS, Henry MR, Luff RD, McCalmont T, Nayar R, Palefsky JM, Stoler MH, Wilkinson EJ, Zaino RJ, Wilbur DC Members of LAST Project Work Groups . 2012. The lower anogenital squamous terminology standardization project for HPV-associated lesions: background and consensus recommendations from the College of American Pathologists and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology. J Low Genit Tract Dis 16 : 205 242.[PubMed]
97. Ribeiro J, Marinho-Dias J, Monteiro P, Loureiro J, Baldaque I, Medeiros R, Sousa H . 2015. mir-34a and mir-125b expression in HPV infection and cervical cancer development. BioMed Res Intl Article ID 304584.
98. Ramos IR, Malkin A, Lyng FM. 2015. Current advances in the application of raman spectroscopy for molecular diagnosis of cervical cancer. BioMed Res Intl 1 9. Article ID 561242.
99. Schiffman M, Wentzensen N, Wacholder S, Kinney W, Gage JC, Castle PE . 2011. Human papillomavirus testing in the prevention of cervical cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 103 : 368 383.[PubMed]
100. Mitchell MF, Tortolero-Luna G, Wright T, Sarkar A, Richards-Kortum R, Hong WK, Schottenfeld D . 1996. Cervical human papillomavirus infection and intraepithelial neoplasia: a review. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr ( 21) : 17 25.[PubMed]
101. IARC Working Group on evaluation of cervical cancer screening programmes . 1986. Screening for squamous cervical cancer: duration of low risk after negative results of cervical cytology and its implication for screening policies. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 293 : 659664.[PubMed]
102. Coutlée F, Ratnam S, Ramanakumar AV, Insinga RR, Bentley J, Escott N, Ghatage P, Koushik A, Ferenczy A, Franco EL . 2011. Distribution of human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Canada. J Med Virol 83 : 1034 1041.[PubMed]
103. Ronco G, Dillner J, Elfström KM, Tunesi S, Snijders PJ, Arbyn M, Kitchener H, Segnan N, Gilham C, Giorgi-Rossi P, Berkhof J, Peto J, Meijer CJ International HPV screening working group . 2014. Efficacy of HPV-based screening for prevention of invasive cervical cancer: follow-up of four European randomised controlled trials. Lancet 383 : 524 532.[PubMed]
104. Arbyn M, Sasieni P, Meijer CJ, Clavel C, Koliopoulos G, Dillner J . 2006. Clinical applications of HPV testing: a summary of meta-analyses. Vaccine 24: Suppl 3: S3/78 89.
105. Dillner J, Rebolj M, Birembaut P, Petry KU, Szarewski A, Munk C, de Sanjose S, Naucler P, Lloveras B, Kjaer S, Cuzick J, van Ballegooijen M, Clavel C, Iftner T,. 2008. Long term predictive values of cytology and human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer screening: Joint European cohort study. BMJ 337: a1754.
106. Katki HA, Kinney WK, Fetterman B, Lorey T, Poitras NE, Cheung L, Demuth F, Schiffman M, Wacholder S, Castle PE . 2011. Cervical cancer risk for women undergoing concurrent testing for human papillomavirus and cervical cytology: a population-based study in routine clinical practice. Lancet Oncol 12 : 663 672.[PubMed]
107. Kulasingam SL, Havrilesky LJ, Ghebre R, Myers ER . 2013. Screening for cervical cancer: a modeling study for the US Preventive Services Task Force. J Low Genit Tract Dis 17 : 193 202.[PubMed]
108. Sasieni P, Castle PE, Cuzick J . 2009. Further analysis of the ARTISTIC trial. Lancet Oncol 10 : 841 842, author reply 842–843.[PubMed]
109. Pretorius RG, Belinson JL, Peterson P, Azizi F, Lo A . 2013. Yield and mode of diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 or cancer among women with negative cervical cytology and positive high-risk human papillomavirus test results. J Low Genit Tract Dis 17 : 430 439.[PubMed]
110. Cox JT, Castle PE, Behrens CM, Sharma A, Wright TC Jr., Cuzick J Athena HPVSG. 2013. Comparison of cervical cancer screening strategies incorporating different combinations of cytology, HPV testing, and genotyping for HPV 16/18: results from the ATHENA HPV study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 208 : 184 e1 e11.
111. Goodrich SK, Pretorius RG, Du H, Wu R, Belinson JL . 2014. Triage of women with negative cytology and positive high-risk HPV: an analysis of data from the SHENCCAST II/III studies. J Low Genit Tract Dis 18 : 122 127.[PubMed]
112. ASCUS-LSIL Triage Study (ALTS) Group . 2003. Results of a randomized trial on the management of cytology interpretations of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Am J Obstet Gynecol 188 : 13831392.[PubMed]
113. Pretorius RG, Peterson P . 2015. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cytology with negative high-risk human papillomavirus tests rarely diagnoses endometrial cancer. J Low Genit Tract Dis 19 : 200 202[PubMed]
114. Kong TW, Son JH, Chang SJ, Paek J, Lee Y, Ryu HS . 2014. Value of endocervical margin and high-risk human papillomavirus status after conization for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ, and microinvasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol 135 : 468 473.[PubMed]
115. Belinson JL, Du H, Yang B, Wu R, Belinson SE, Qu X, Pretorius RG, Yi X, Castle PE. 2012. Improved sensitivity of vaginal self-collection and high-risk human papillomavirus testing. Intl J Cancer 130: 1855 1860.
116. Doorbar J, Egawa N, Griiffin H, Kranjec C, Murakami I. ( 2016) Human papillomavirus molecular biology and disease association. Rev. Med. Virol 25: 2 23.


Generic image for table

The function of viral proteins

Citation: Novak-Weekley S, Pretorius R. 2016. Human Papillomaviruses, p 413-426. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch30
Generic image for table

Diseases associated to human papillomaviruses in immunocompetent people

Citation: Novak-Weekley S, Pretorius R. 2016. Human Papillomaviruses, p 413-426. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch30
Generic image for table

Comparison of human papillomavirus vaccines, United States (2015)

Citation: Novak-Weekley S, Pretorius R. 2016. Human Papillomaviruses, p 413-426. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch30
Generic image for table

U.S. FDA-approved assays for high-risk HPV testing

Citation: Novak-Weekley S, Pretorius R. 2016. Human Papillomaviruses, p 413-426. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch30

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error