Chapter 35 : Arboviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Arboviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819156/9781555819149.ch35-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819156/9781555819149.ch35-2.gif


Arboviruses (thropod-rne viruses) are a biologically defined category of viruses that almost exclusively have RNA genomes. Most of the 100 medically important arboviruses belong to five families: , , , , and . A single genus in the family () and a single DNA virus in the family () are also members of the group. The arboviruses include approximately 40 serological groups based on antigenic cross-reactivity. These viruses are unique in that they generally require cycling between disparate hosts (i.e., vertebrates and hematophagous arthropod vectors). Mosquitoes and ticks are the most common invertebrate vectors, while less common vectors include biting midges and sandflies. Some viruses, such as vertebrate-only flaviviruses (, for one) and insect-only alpha- and flaviviruses (, for one) are not transmitted between disparate hosts.

Citation: Kramer L, Kauffman E, Tavakoli N. 2016. Arboviruses, p 493-514. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch35
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Geographic distribution of arboviral diseases. The choice of tests to be performed should be relevant to the location of the patient at the time of infection, with consideration for location of residence and travel history. Refer to Tables 1 to 3 for clinical syndromes. Virus abbreviations: BF, Barmah Forest; CCHF, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; CE, California encephalitis serogroup (in North America: La Crosse, Snowshoe hare, Jamestown Canyon; in Europe: Inkoo, Tahyna; in Middle East and Africa: Tahyna; in Asia: Snowshoe hare); CHIK, Chikungunya; DEN, Dengue; EEE, Eastern equine encephalitis; JE, Japanese encephalitis; KUN, Kunjin; MAY, Mayaro; MVE, Murray Valley encephalitis; ONN, O'Nyong Nyong; POW, Powassan; RR, Ross River; RVF, Rift Valley fever; SIN, Sindbis; SFN, Sandfly fever Naples; SFS, Sandfly fever Sicilian; SFTS, Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome; SLE, St. Louis encephalitis; TBE, Tick-borne encephalitis; TOS, Toscana; VEE, Venezuelan equine encephalitis; WEE, Western equine encephalitis; WN, West Nile; YF, Yellow fever; ZIK, Zika. (Modified from a figure kindly provided by Robert Lanciotti, Center for Disease Control, Fort Collins, CO.)

Citation: Kramer L, Kauffman E, Tavakoli N. 2016. Arboviruses, p 493-514. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch35
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Viremia and antibody kinetics following arbovirus infection. As a guide for virologic and serologic tests, the solid lines below the graph represent the more common results, and broken lines represent reported ranges. The markers of DENV infection have been well studied and have proven useful for diagnostic methods ( ). Viremia is generally short and spans the period of acute illness (0 to 6 days after onset). IgM appears as viremia declines, peaks approximately 14 days after onset of disease, and may persist up to 3 months. The structural protein, NS1 is expressed during the first 9 days of illness. IgG appears at the end of the first week of illness, slowly increases and may be detectable over the lifetime of the individual. In secondary infections, high levels of IgG are detectable even in the acute phase of illness, whereas IgM levels are significantly lower.

Citation: Kramer L, Kauffman E, Tavakoli N. 2016. Arboviruses, p 493-514. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch35
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Westaway EG, Brinton MA, , Gaidamovich SYa , , Horzinek MC, Igarashi A, Kääriäinen L, Lvov DK, Porterfield JS, Russell PK, Trent DW . 1985. Togaviridae. Intervirology 24 : 125 139.[PubMed]
2. Calisher CH, Karabatsos N, Lazuick JS, Monath TP, Wolff KL . 1988. Reevaluation of the western equine encephalitis antigenic complex of alphaviruses (family Togaviridae) as determined by neutralization tests. Am J Trop Med Hyg 38 : 447 452.[PubMed]
3. Strauss JH, Strauss EG . 1994. The alphaviruses: gene expression, replication, and evolution. Microbiol Rev 58 : 491 562. (Erratum, 58:806, 1994.)[PubMed]
4. Weaver SC, Hagenbaugh A, Bellew LA, Netesov SV, Volchkov VE, Chang G-JJ, Clarke DK, Gousset L, Scott TW, Trent DW, Holland JJ . 1993. A comparison of the nucleotide sequences of eastern and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses with those of other alphaviruses and related RNA viruses. Virology 197 : 375 390.[PubMed]
5. Calisher CH, Karabatsos N, . 1988. Arbovirus serogroups definition and geographic distribution, p 19 57. In Monath TP (ed), The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology, vol 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
6. Casals J . 1964. Antigenic variants of Eastern equine encephalitis virus. J Exp Med 119 : 547 565.[PubMed]
7. Arrigo NC, Adams AP, Weaver SC . 2010. Evolutionary patterns of eastern equine encephalitis virus in North versus South America suggest ecological differences and taxonomic revision. J Virol 84 : 1014 1025.[PubMed]
8. Weaver SC, Hagenbaugh A, Bellew LA, Gousset L, Mallampalli V, Holland JJ, Scott TW . 1994. Evolution of alphaviruses in the eastern equine encephalomyelitis complex. J Virol 68 : 158 169.[PubMed]
9. von Sprockhoff H, Ising E . 1971. On the presence of viruses of the American equine encephalomyelitis in Central Europe. Review. Arch Gesamte Virusforsch 34 : 371 380.
10. Kramer LD, Fallah HM . 1999. Genetic variation among isolates of western equine encephalomyelitis virus from California. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 : 708 713.[PubMed]
11. Powers AM, Brault AC, Shirako Y, Strauss EG, Kang W, Strauss JH, Weaver SC . 2001. Evolutionary relationships and systematics of the alphaviruses. J Virol 75 : 10118 10131.[PubMed]
12. Weaver SC, Ferro C, Barrera R, Boshell J, Navarro JC . 2004. Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Annu Rev Entomol 49 : 141 174.[PubMed]
13. Weaver SC, Winegar R, Manger ID, Forrester NL . 2012. Alphaviruses: population genetics and determinants of emergence. Antiviral Res 94 : 242 257.
14. Weaver SC, Bellew LA, Rico-Hesse R . 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of alphaviruses in the Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex and identification of the source of epizootic viruses. Virology 191 : 282 290.[PubMed]
15. Walton TE, Alvarez O Jr, Buckwalter RM, Johnson KM . 1973. Experimental infection of horses with enzootic and epizootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. J Infect Dis 128 : 271 282.[PubMed]
16. Aguilar PV, Estrada-Franco JG, Navarro-Lopez R, Ferro C, Haddow AD, Weaver SC . 2011. Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in the Americas: hidden under the dengue umbrella. Future Virol 6 : 721 740.[PubMed]
17. Morrison TE . 2014. Reemergence of chikungunya virus. J Virol 88 : 11644 11647.[PubMed]
18. Brinton MA . 2002. The molecular biology of West Nile Virus: a new invader of the western hemisphere. Annu Rev Microbiol 56 : 371 402.[PubMed]
19. Lindenbach BD, Thiel HJ, Rice CM, . 2007. Flaviviridae: the viruses and their replication, p 1101 1152. In Knipe DM, Howley PM (ed), Fields Virology, 5th ed. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia.
20. Mandl CW . 2005. Steps of the tick-borne encephalitis virus replication cycle that affect neuropathogenesis. Virus Res 111 : 161 174.[PubMed]
21. Mukhopadhyay S, Kuhn RJ, Rossmann MG . 2005. A structural perspective of the flavivirus life cycle. Nat Rev Microbiol 3 : 13 22.[PubMed]
22. Gaunt MW, Sall AA, de Lamballerie X, Falconar AK, Dzhivanian TI, Gould EA . 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of flaviviruses correlate with their epidemiology, disease association and biogeography. J Gen Virol 82 : 1867 1876.[PubMed]
23. Porterfield JS, . 1980. Antigenic characteristics and classification of Togaviridae, p 13 46. In Schlesinger RW (ed), The Togaviruses: Biology, Structure, Replication. Academic Press, New York.
24. Calisher CH, Karabatsos N, Dalrymple JM, Shope RE, Porterfield JS, Westaway EG, Brandt WE . 1989. Antigenic relationships between flaviviruses as determined by cross-neutralization tests with polyclonal antisera. J Gen Virol 70 : 37 43.[PubMed]
25. Bondre VP, Jadi RS, Mishra AC, Yergolkar PN, Arankalle VA . 2007. West Nile virus isolates from India: evidence for a distinct genetic lineage. J Gen Virol 88 : 875 884.[PubMed]
26. Go YY, Balasuriya UB, Lee CK . 2014. Zoonotic encephalitides caused by arboviruses: transmission and epidemiology of alphaviruses and flaviviruses. Clin Exp Vaccine Res 3 : 58 77.[PubMed]
27. Suthar MS, Diamond MS, Gale M Jr . 2013. West Nile virus infection and immunity. Nat Rev Microbiol 11 : 115 128.[PubMed]
28. Bakonyi T, Hubálek Z, Rudolf I, Nowotny N . 2005. Novel flavivirus or new lineage of West Nile virus, central Europe. Emerg Infect Dis 11 : 225 231.[PubMed]
29. Grard G, Moureau G, Charrel RN, Lemasson JJ, Gonzalez JP, Gallian P, Gritsun TS, Holmes EC, Gould EA, de Lamballerie X . 2007. Genetic characterization of tick-borne flaviviruses: new insights into evolution, pathogenetic determinants and taxonomy. Virology 361 : 80 92.[PubMed]
30. Thiel H-J, Collett MS, Gould EA, Heinz FX, Meyers G, Purcell RH, Rice CM, Houghton M, . 2005. Flaviviridae, p 981 998. In Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA (ed), Virus Taxonomy: Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Virology Division, International Union of Microbiological Societies, San Diego, CA.
31. Demina TV, Dzhioev YP, Verkhozina MM, Kozlova IV, Tkachev SE, Plyusnin A, Doroshchenko EK, Lisak OV, Zlobin VI . 2010. Genotyping and characterization of the geographical distribution of tick-borne encephalitis virus variants with a set of molecular probes. J Med Virol 82 : 965 976.[PubMed]
32. Gritsun TS, Nuttall PA, Gould EA . 2003. Tick-borne flaviviruses. Adv Virus Res 61 : 317 371.[PubMed]
33. Ebel GD, Spielman A, Telford SR III . 2001. Phylogeny of North American Powassan virus. J Gen Virol 82 : 1657 1665.[PubMed]
34. Kuno G, Artsob H, Karabatsos N, Tsuchiya KR, Chang GJ . 2001. Genomic sequencing of deer tick virus and phylogeny of powassan-related viruses of North America. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65 : 671 676.[PubMed]
35. Telford SR III, Armstrong PM, Katavolos P, Foppa I, Garcia AS, Wilson ML, Spielman A . 1997. A new tick-borne encephalitis-like virus infecting New England deer ticks, Ixodes dammini. Emerg Infect Dis 3 : 165 170.[PubMed]
36. Tavakoli NP, Wang H, Dupuis M, Hull R, Ebel GD, Gilmore EJ, Faust PL . 2009. Fatal case of deer tick virus encephalitis. N Engl J Med 360 : 2099 2107.[PubMed]
37. Pesko KN, Torres-Perez F, Hjelle BL, Ebel GD . 2010. Molecular epidemiology of Powassan virus in North America. J Gen Virol 91 : 2698 2705.[PubMed]
38. Leonova GN, Sorokina MN, Krugliak SP . 1991. The clinico-epidemiological characteristics of Powassan encephalitis in the southern Soviet Far East. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol ( 3 ): 35 39. (In Russian.)[PubMed]
39. Jin H, Elliott RM . 1991. Expression of functional Bunyamwera virus L protein by recombinant vaccinia viruses. J Virol 65 : 4182 4189.[PubMed]
40. Jin H, Elliott RM . 1992. Mutagenesis of the L protein encoded by Bunyamwera virus and production of monospecific antibodies. J Gen Virol 73 : 2235 2244.[PubMed]
41. Gentsch JR, Bishop DL . 1979. M viral RNA segment of bunyaviruses codes for two glycoproteins, G1 and G2. J Virol 30 : 767 770.[PubMed]
42. Fuller F, Bishop DH . 1982. Identification of virus-coded nonstructural polypeptides in bunyavirus-infected cells. J Virol 41 : 643 648.[PubMed]
43. Elliott RM . 1985. Identification of nonstructural proteins encoded by viruses of the Bunyamwera serogroup (family Bunyaviridae). Virology 143 : 119 126.[PubMed]
44. Elliott RM . 1990. Molecular biology of the Bunyaviridae. J Gen Virol 71 : 501 522.[PubMed]
45. Schmaljohn AL, McClain D, . 1996. Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) and flaviviruses (Flaviviridae), In Baron S (ed), Medical Microbiology, 4th ed. The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX.
46. Karabatsos N . 1985. International Catalogue of Arboviruses, 1985, Including Certain Other Viruses of Vertebrates, 3rd ed. American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygeine, San Antonio, TX.
47. Young NA, Johnson KM . 1969. Antigenic variants of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus: their geographic distribution and epidemiologic significance. Am J Epidemiol 89 : 286 307.[PubMed]
48. Weaver SC, Pfeffer M, Marriott K, Kang W, Kinney RM . 1999. Genetic evidence for the origins of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IAB outbreaks. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 : 441 448.[PubMed]
49. Rezza G, Nicoletti L, Angelini R, Romi R, Finarelli AC, Panning M, Cordioli P, Fortuna C, Boros S, Magurano F, Silvi G, Angelini P, Dottori M, Ciufolini MG, Majori GC, Cassone A CHIKV study group . 2007. Infection with chikungunya virus in Italy: an outbreak in a temperate region. Lancet 370 : 1840 1846.[PubMed]
50. Charrel RN, de Lamballerie X . 2008. Chikungunya virus in north-eastern Italy: a consequence of seasonal synchronicity. Euro Surveill 13 : 13.[PubMed]
51. Lundström JO, Pfeffer M . 2010. Phylogeographic structure and evolutionary history of Sindbis virus. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 10 : 889 907.[PubMed]
52. Jupp PG . 2001. The ecology of West Nile virus in South Africa and the occurrence of outbreaks in humans. Ann N Y Acad Sci 951 : 143 152.[PubMed]
53. Gubler DJ, Clark GG . 1995. Dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever: the emergence of a global health problem. Emerg Infect Dis 1 : 55 57.[PubMed]
54. (WHO) WHO . 2012. Global Strategy for Dengue Prevention and Control, 2012-2020. WHO Press, Geneva.
55. Bhatt S, Gething PW, Brady OJ, Messina JP, Farlow AW, Moyes CL, Drake JM, Brownstein JS, Hoen AG, Sankoh O, Myers MF, George DB, Jaenisch T, Wint GR, Simmons CP, Scott TW, Farrar JJ, Hay SI . 2013. The global distribution and burden of dengue. Nature 496 : 504 507.[PubMed]
56. Gubler DJ . 2011. Dengue, urbanization and globalization: the unholy trinity of the 21(st) century. Trop Med Health 39( Suppl) : S3 S11.[PubMed]
57. Hoffmann AA, Montgomery BL, Popovici J, Iturbe-Ormaetxe I, Johnson PH, Muzzi F, Greenfield M, Durkan M, Leong YS, Dong Y, Cook H, Axford J, Callahan AG, Kenny N, Omodei C, McGraw EA, Ryan PA, Ritchie SA, Turelli M, O'Neill SL . 2011. Successful establishment of Wolbachia in Aedes populations to suppress dengue transmission. Nature 476 : 454 457.[PubMed]
58. Thomas SJ . 2014. Developing a dengue vaccine: progress and future challenges. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1323 : 140 159.[PubMed]
59. Smithburn KC, Hughes TP, Burke AW, Paul JH . 1940. A neurotropic virus isolated from the blood of a native of Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg 20 : 471 473.
60. Hayes CG . 2001. West Nile virus: Uganda, 1937, to New York City, 1999. Ann N Y Acad Sci 951 : 25 37.[PubMed]
61. Kilpatrick AM, Kramer LD, Campbell SR, Alleyne EO, Dobson AP, Daszak P . 2005. West Nile virus risk assessment and the bridge vector paradigm. Emerg Infect Dis 11 : 425 429.[PubMed]
62. Marfin AA, Petersen LR, Eidson M, Miller J, Hadler J, Farello C, Werner B, Campbell GL, Layton M, Smith P, Bresnitz E, Cartter M, Scaletta J, Obiri G, Bunning M, Craven RC, Roehrig JT, Julian KG, Hinten SR, Gubler DJ ArboNET Cooperative Surveillance Group . 2001. Widespread West Nile virus activity, eastern United States, 2000. Emerg Infect Dis 7 : 730 735.[PubMed]
63. Ciccozzi M, Peletto S, Cella E, Giovanetti M, Lai A, Gabanelli E, Acutis PL, Modesto P, Rezza G, Platonov AE, Lo Presti A, Zehender G . 2013. Epidemiological history and phylogeography of West Nile virus lineage 2. Infect Genet Evol 17 : 46 50.[PubMed]
64. Bakonyi T, Ferenczi E, Erdélyi K, Kutasi O, Csörgő T, Seidel B, Weissenböck H, Brugger K, Bán E, Nowotny N . 2013. Explosive spread of a neuroinvasive lineage 2 West Nile virus in Central Europe, 2008/2009. Vet Microbiol 165 : 61 70.[PubMed]
65. Kolodziejek J, Marinov M, Kiss BJ, Alexe V, Nowotny N . 2014. The complete sequence of a West Nile virus lineage 2 strain detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a song thrush ( Turdus philomelos) in eastern Romania in 2013 revealed closest genetic relationship to strain Volgograd 2007. PLoS One 9 : e109905.[PubMed]
66. May FJ, Davis CT, Tesh RB, Barrett AD . 2011. Phylogeography of West Nile virus: from the cradle of evolution in Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas. J Virol 85 : 2964 2974.[PubMed]
67. Rappole JH, Derrickson SR, Hubálek Z . 2000. Migratory birds and spread of West Nile virus in the Western Hemisphere. Emerg Infect Dis 6 : 319 328.[PubMed]
68. Rappole JH, Hubálek Z . 2003. Migratory birds and West Nile virus. J Appl Microbiol 94( Suppl) : 47S 58S.[PubMed]
69. Dumpis U, Crook D, Oksi J . 1999. Tick-borne encephalitis. Clin Infect Dis 28 : 882 890.[PubMed]
70. Kuno G, . 2011. Zika virus, p 313 319. In Liu D (ed), Molecular detection of human viral pathogens. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
71. Daubney R, Hudson JR, Gamham PC . 1933. Enzootic hepatitis of Rift Valley Fever: an undescribed virus in sheep, cattle and man from East Africa. East Afr Med J 10 : 2 19.
72. Pepin M, Bouloy M, Bird BH, Kemp A, Paweska J . 2010. Rift Valley fever virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus): an update on pathogenesis, molecular epidemiology, vectors, diagnostics and prevention. Vet Res 41 : 61.[PubMed]
73. Chumakov MP, Butenko AM, Shalunova NV, Mart'ianova LI, Smirnova SE, Bashkirtsev IN, Zavodova TI, Rubin SG, Tkachenko EA, Karmysheva VI, Reĭngol'd VN, Popov GV, Savinov AP . 1968. New data on the viral agent of Crimean hemorrhagic fever. Vopr Virusol 13 : 377. (In Russian.)[PubMed]
74. Woodall JP, Williams MC, Simpson DI . 1967. Congo virus: a hitherto undescribed virus occurring in Africa. II. Identification studies. East Afr Med J 44 : 93 98.[PubMed]
75. Simpson DI, Knight EM, Courtois G, Williams MC, Weinbren MP, Kibukamusoke JW . 1967. Congo virus: a hitherto undescribed virus occurring in Africa. I. Human isolations—clinical notes. East Afr Med J 44 : 86 92.[PubMed]
76. Lam TT, Liu W, Bowden TA, Cui N, Zhuang L, Liu K, Zhang YY, Cao WC, Pybus OG . 2013. Evolutionary and molecular analysis of the emergent severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. Epidemics 5 : 1 10.[PubMed]
77. Steele KE, Reed DS, Glass PJ, Hart MK, Ludwig GV, Pratt WD, Parker MD, . 2007. Alphavirus encephalitides, p 241 270. In Dembek ZF (ed), Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare. Borden Institute (U.S. Army Walter Reed), Fort Detrick, MD.
78. Queyriaux B, Simon F, Grandadam M, Michel R, Tolou H, Boutin JP . 2008. Clinical burden of chikungunya virus infection. Lancet Infect Dis 8 : 2 3.[PubMed]
79. Gérardin P, Fianu A, Malvy D, Mussard C, Boussaïd K, Rollot O, Michault A, Gaüzere BA, Bréart G, Favier F . 2012. Perceived morbidity and community burden of chikungunya in La Reunion. Med Trop (Mars) 72 : 76 82. (In French.)[PubMed]
80. Carey DE . 1971. Chikungunya and dengue: a case of mistaken identity? J Hist Med Allied Sci 26 : 243 262.[PubMed]
81. Krishnamoorthy K, Harichandrakumar KT, Krishna Kumari A, Das LK . 2009. Burden of chikungunya in India: estimates of disability adjusted life years (DALY) lost in 2006 epidemic. J Vector Borne Dis 46 : 26 35.[PubMed]
82. Sane J, Guedes S, Kurkela S, Lyytikäinen O, Vapalahti O . 2010. Epidemiological analysis of mosquito-borne Pogosta disease in Finland, 2009. Euro Surveill 15 : 15.[PubMed]
83. Kurkela S, Manni T, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O . 2004. Causative agent of Pogosta disease isolated from blood and skin lesions. Emerg Infect Dis 10 : 889 894.[PubMed]
84. Skogh M, Espmark A . 1982. Ockelbo disease: epidemic arthritis-exanthema syndrome in Sweden caused by Sindbis-virus like agent. Lancet 1 : 795 796.[PubMed]
85. Lvov DK, Skvortsova TM, Berezina LK, Gromashevsky VL, Yakovlev BI, Gushchin BV, Aristova VA, Sidorova GA, Gushchina EL, Klimenko SM , , et al . 1984. Isolation of Karelian fever agent from Aedes communis mosquitoes. Lancet 2 : 399 400.[PubMed]
86. Kurkela S, Manni T, Myllynen J, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O . 2005. Clinical and laboratory manifestations of Sindbis virus infection: prospective study, Finland, 2002-2003. J Infect Dis 191 : 1820 1829.[PubMed]
87. Turunen M, Kuusisto P, Uggeldahl PE, Toivanen A . 1998. Pogosta disease: clinical observations during an outbreak in the province of North Karelia, Finland. Br J Rheumatol 37 : 1177 1180.[PubMed]
88. Kurkela S, Helve T, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O . 2008. Arthritis and arthralgia three years after Sindbis virus infection: clinical follow-up of a cohort of 49 patients. Scand J Infect Dis 40 : 167 173.[PubMed]
89. Coimbra TL, Santos CL, Suzuki A, Petrella SM, Bisordi I, Nagamori AH, Marti AT, Santos RN, Fialho DM, Lavigne S, Buzzar MR, Rocco IM . 2007. Mayaro virus: imported cases of human infection in São Paulo State, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 49 : 221 224.[PubMed]
90. Condon RJ, Rouse IL . 1995. Acute symptoms and sequelae of Ross River virus infection in South-Western Australia: a follow-up study. Clin Diagn Virol 3 : 273 284.[PubMed]
91. Flexman JP, Smith DW, Mackenzie JS, Fraser JRE, Bass SPH, Hueston L, Lindsay MD, Cunningham AL . 1998. A comparison of the diseases caused by Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus. Med J Aust 169 : 159 163.[PubMed]
92. Kalayanarooj S . 2011. Clinical manifestations and management of dengue/DHF/DSS. Trop Med Health 39( Suppl) : S83 S87.[PubMed]
93. Halstead SB, O'Rourke EJ . 1977. Antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection in primate leukocytes. Nature 265 : 739 741.[PubMed]
94. Halstead SB . 2003. Neutralization and antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue viruses. Adv Virus Res 60 : 421 467.[PubMed]
95. Davis LE, DeBiasi R, Goade DE, Haaland KY, Harrington JA, Harnar JB, Pergam SA, King MK, DeMasters BK, Tyler KL . 2006. West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease. Ann Neurol 60 : 286 300.[PubMed]
96. Ciota AT, Kramer LD . 2013. Vector-virus interactions and transmission dynamics of West Nile virus. Viruses 5 : 3021 3047.[PubMed]
97. Hayes EB, Gubler DJ . 2006. West Nile virus: epidemiology and clinical features of an emerging epidemic in the United States. Annu Rev Med 57 : 181 194.[PubMed]
98. Petersen LR, Marfin AA . 2002. West Nile virus: a primer for the clinician. Ann Intern Med 137 : 173 179.[PubMed]
99. Solomon T, Vaughn D, . 2002. Clinical features and patho physiology of Japanese encephalitis and West Nile infections, p 171 194. In Mackenzie J, Barrett A, Deubel V (ed), Current topics in microbiology and immunology: Japanese encephalitis and West Nile infections. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
100. Gyure KA . 2009. West Nile virus infections. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 68 : 1053 1060.[PubMed]
101. Tsai TF . 2000. New initiatives for the control of Japanese encephalitis by vaccination: minutes of a WHO/CVI meeting, Bangkok, Thailand, 13-15 October 1998. Vaccine 18( Suppl 2) : 1 25.[PubMed]
102. Olson JG, Ksiazek TG, , Suhandiman , , Triwibowo . 1981. Zika virus, a cause of fever in Central Java, Indonesia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 75 : 389 393.[PubMed]
103. Duffy MR, Chen TH, Hancock WT, Powers AM, Kool JL, Lanciotti RS, Pretrick M, Marfel M, Holzbauer S, Dubray C, Guillaumot L, Griggs A, Bel M, Lambert AJ, Laven J, Kosoy O, Panella A, Biggerstaff BJ, Fischer M, Hayes EB . 2009. Zika virus outbreak on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia. N Engl J Med 360 : 2536 2543.[PubMed]
104. Mackenzie JS, Smith DW, Broom AK, Bucens MR . 1993. Australian encephalitis in Western Australia, 1978-1991. Med J Aust 158 : 591 595.[PubMed]
105. Russell RC, Dwyer DE . 2000. Arboviruses associated with human disease in Australia. Microbes Infect 2 : 1693 1704.[PubMed]
106. Ergönül O . 2006. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. Lancet Infect Dis 6 : 203 214.[PubMed]
107. Meegan J, Le Guenno B, Ksiazek T, Jouan A, Knauert F, Digoutte JP, Peters CJ . 1989. Rapid diagnosis of Rift Valley fever: a comparison of methods for the direct detection of viral antigen in human sera. Res Virol 140 : 59 65.[PubMed]
108. Faye O, Diallo M, Diop D, Bezeid OE, H, Niang M, Dia I, Mohamed SA, Ndiaye K, Diallo D, Ly PO, Diallo B, Nabeth P, Simon F, B, Diop OM . 2007. Rift Valley fever outbreak with East-Central African virus lineage in Mauritania, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis 13 : 1016 1023.[PubMed]
109. Madani TA, Al-Mazrou YY, Al-Jeffri MH, Mishkhas AA, Al-Rabeah AM, Turkistani AM, Al-Sayed MO, Abodahish AA, Khan AS, Ksiazek TG, Shobokshi O . 2003. Rift Valley fever epidemic in Saudi Arabia: epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics. Clin Infect Dis 37 : 1084 1092.[PubMed]
110. Bird BH, Ksiazek TG, Nichol ST, Maclachlan NJ . 2009. Rift Valley fever virus. J Am Vet Med Assoc 234 : 883 893.[PubMed]
111. Soldan SS, González-Scarano F . 2005. Emerging infectious diseases: the Bunyaviridae. J Neurovirol 11 : 412 423.[PubMed]
112. Steiner I, Budka H, Chaudhuri A, Koskiniemi M, Sainio K, Salonen O, Kennedy PG . 2010. Viral meningoencephalitis: a review of diagnostic methods and guidelines for management. Eur J Neurol 17 : 999 e57.[PubMed]
113. Julander JG, Bowen RA, Rao JR, Day C, Shafer K, Smee DF, Morrey JD, Chu CK . 2008. Treatment of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection with (-)-carbodine. Antiviral Res 80 : 309 315.[PubMed]
114. O'Brien L . 2007. Inhibition of multiple strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus by a pool of four short interfering RNAs. Antiviral Res 75 : 20 29.[PubMed]
115. Parashar D, Paingankar MS, Kumar S, Gokhale MD, Sudeep AB, Shinde SB, Arankalle VA . 2013. Administration of E2 and NS1 siRNAs inhibit chikungunya virus replication in vitro and protects mice infected with the virus. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7 : e2405.[PubMed]
116. Richardson-Burns SM, Tyler KL . 2005. Minocycline delays disease onset and mortality in reovirus encephalitis. Exp Neurol 192 : 331 339.[PubMed]
117. Mishra MK, Basu A . 2008. Minocycline neuroprotects, reduces microglial activation, inhibits caspase 3 induction, and viral replication following Japanese encephalitis. J Neurochem 105 : 1582 1595.[PubMed]
118. Dutta K, Ghosh D, Basu A . 2009. Curcumin protects neuronal cells from Japanese encephalitis virus-mediated cell death and also inhibits infective viral particle formation by dysregulation of ubiquitin-proteasome system. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 4 : 328 337.[PubMed]
119. Thompson BS, Moesker B, Smit JM, Wilschut J, Diamond MS, Fremont DH . 2009. A therapeutic antibody against West Nile virus neutralizes infection by blocking fusion within endosomes. PLoS Pathog 5 : e1000453.[PubMed]
120. Singh N, Levi ME AST Infectious Diseases Community of Practice . 2013. Arenavirus and West Nile virus in solid organ transplantation. Am J Transplant 13( Suppl 4) : 361 371.[PubMed]
121. Edelman R, Tacket CO, Wasserman SS, Bodison SA, Perry JG, Mangiafico JA . 2000. Phase II safety and immunogenicity study of live chikungunya virus vaccine TSI-GSD-218. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 : 681 685.[PubMed]
122. Kim DY, Atasheva S, Foy NJ, Wang E, Frolova EI, Weaver S, Frolov I . 2011. Design of chimeric alphaviruses with a programmed, attenuated, cell type-restricted phenotype. J Virol 85 : 4363 4376.[PubMed]
123. Tiwari M, Parida M, Santhosh SR, Khan M, Dash PK, Rao PV . 2009. Assessment of immunogenic potential of Vero adapted formalin inactivated vaccine derived from novel ECSA genotype of Chikungunya virus. Vaccine 27 : 2513 2522.[PubMed]
124. Thiboutot MM, Kannan S, Kawalekar OU, Shedlock DJ, Khan AS, Sarangan G, Srikanth P, Weiner DB, Muthumani K . 2010. Chikungunya: a potentially emerging epidemic? PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4 : e623.[PubMed]
125. Wang D, Suhrbier A, Penn-Nicholson A, Woraratanadharm J, Gardner J, Luo M, Le TT, Anraku I, Sakalian M, Einfeld D, Dong JY . 2011. A complex adenovirus vaccine against chikungunya virus provides complete protection against viraemia and arthritis. Vaccine 29 : 2803 2809.[PubMed]
126. Rojanasuphot S, Charoensuk O, Kitprayura D, Likityingvara C, Limpisthien S, Boonyindee S, Jivariyavej V, Ugchusak K . 1989. A field trial of Japanese encephalitis vaccine produced in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 20 : 653 654.[PubMed]
127. Fischer M, Lindsey N, Staples JE, Hills S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . 2010. Japanese encephalitis vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 59( RR-1) : 1 27.[PubMed]
128. Duggan ST, Plosker GL . 2009. Japanese encephalitis vaccine (inactivated, adsorbed) [IXIARO]. Drugs 69 : 115 122.[PubMed]
129. Kramer LD, Styer LM, Ebel GD . 2008. A global perspective on the epidemiology of West Nile virus. Annu Rev Entomol 53 : 61 81.[PubMed]
130. Monath TP, . 1988. Yellow fever, p 139 231. In Monath TP (ed), The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
131. Villar L, Dayan GH, Arredondo-Garcia JL, Rivera DM, Cunha R, Deseda C, Reynales H, Costa MS, Morales-Ramirez JO, Carrasquilla G, Rey LC, Dietze R, Luz K, Rivas E, Montoya MC, Supelano MC, Zambrano B, Langevin E, Boaz M, Tornieporth N, Saville M, Noriega F . 2015. Efficacy of a tetravalent dengue vaccine in children in Latin America. N Engl J Med 372 : 113 123.[PubMed]
132. Guirakhoo F, Pugachev K, Arroyo J, Miller C, Zhang ZX, Weltzin R, Georgakopoulos K, Catalan J, Ocran S, Draper K, Monath TP . 2002. Viremia and immunogenicity in nonhuman primates of a tetravalent yellow fever-dengue chimeric vaccine: genetic reconstructions, dose adjustment, and antibody responses against wild-type dengue virus isolates. Virology 298 : 146 159.[PubMed]
133. Guirakhoo F, Pugachev K, Zhang Z, Myers G, Levenbook I, Draper K, Lang J, Ocran S, Mitchell F, Parsons M, Brown N, Brandler S, Fournier C, Barrere B, Rizvi F, Travassos A, Nichols R, Trent D, Monath T . 2004. Safety and efficacy of chimeric yellow Fever-dengue virus tetravalent vaccine formulations in nonhuman primates. J Virol 78 : 4761 4775.[PubMed]
134. Sinha G . 2014. Sanofi's dengue vaccine first to complete phase 3. Nat Biotechnol 32 : 605 606.[PubMed]
135. Edelman R, Wasserman SS, Bodison SA, Putnak RJ, Eckels KH, Tang D, Kanesa-Thasan N, Vaughn DW, Innis BL, Sun W . 2003. Phase I trial of 16 formulations of a tetravalent live-attenuated dengue vaccine. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69( Suppl) : 48 60.[PubMed]
136. Thomas SJ, Eckels KH, Carletti I, De La Barrera R, Dessy F, Fernandez S, Putnak R, Toussaint JF, Sun W, Bauer K, Gibbons RV, Innis BL . 2013. A phase II, randomized, safety and immunogenicity study of a re-derived, live-attenuated dengue virus vaccine in healthy adults. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88 : 73 88.[PubMed]
137. Osorio JE, Brewoo JN, Silengo SJ, Arguello J, Moldovan IR, Tary-Lehmann M, Powell TD, Livengood JA, Kinney RM, Huang CY, Stinchcomb DT . 2011. Efficacy of a tetravalent chimeric dengue vaccine (DENVax) in Cynomolgus macaques. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84 : 978 987.[PubMed]
138. Durbin AP, Kirkpatrick BD, Pierce KK, Schmidt AC, Whitehead SS . 2011. Development and clinical evaluation of multiple investigational monovalent DENV vaccines to identify components for inclusion in a live attenuated tetravalent DENV vaccine. Vaccine 29 : 7242 7250.[PubMed]
139. Putnak R, Barvir DA, Burrous JM, Dubois DR, D'Andrea VM, Hoke CH, Sadoff JC, Eckels KH . 1996. Development of a purified, inactivated, dengue-2 virus vaccine prototype in Vero cells: immunogenicity and protection in mice and rhesus monkeys. J Infect Dis 174 : 1176 1184.[PubMed]
140. Coller BA, Clements DE, Bett AJ, Sagar SL, Ter Meulen JH . 2011. The development of recombinant subunit envelope-based vaccines to protect against dengue virus induced disease. Vaccine 29 : 7267 7275.[PubMed]
141. Clements DE, Coller BA, Lieberman MM, Ogata S, Wang G, Harada KE, Putnak JR, Ivy JM, McDonell M, Bignami GS, Peters ID, Leung J, Weeks-Levy C, Nakano ET, Humphreys T . 2010. Development of a recombinant tetravalent dengue virus vaccine: immunogenicity and efficacy studies in mice and monkeys. Vaccine 28 : 2705 2715.[PubMed]
142. Arora U, Tyagi P, Swaminathan S, Khanna N . 2013. Virus-like particles displaying envelope domain III of dengue virus type 2 induce virus-specific antibody response in mice. Vaccine 31 : 873 878.[PubMed]
143. Khanam S, Pilankatta R, Khanna N, Swaminathan S . 2009. An adenovirus type 5 (AdV5) vector encoding an envelope domain III-based tetravalent antigen elicits immune responses against all four dengue viruses in the presence of prior AdV5 immunity. Vaccine 27 : 6011 6021.[PubMed]
144. Lu H, Xu XF, Gao N, Fan DY, Wang J, An J . 2013. Preliminary evaluation of DNA vaccine candidates encoding dengue-2 prM/E and NS1: their immunity and protective efficacy in mice. Mol Immunol 54 : 109 114.[PubMed]
145. McArthur MA, Sztein MB, Edelman R . 2013. Dengue vaccines: recent developments, ongoing challenges and current candidates. Expert Rev Vaccines 12 : 933 953.[PubMed]
146. Martin DA, Muth DA, Brown T, Johnson AJ, Karabatsos N, Roehrig JT . 2000. Standardization of immunoglobulin M capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for routine diagnosis of arboviral infections. J Clin Microbiol 38 : 1823 1826.[PubMed]
147. Gea-Banacloche J, Johnson RT, Bagic A, Butman JA, Murray PR, Agrawal AG . 2004. West Nile virus: pathogenesis and therapeutic options. Ann Intern Med 140 : 545 553.[PubMed]
148. Barrett ADT, Weaver SC, . 2012. Arboviruses: alphaviruses, flaviviruses and bunyaviruses, p 520 536. In Greenwood D, Barer M, Slack R, Irving W (ed), Medical Microbiology, 18th ed. Elsevier, London.
149. Kuby J, . 1997. Antibodies, p 399. In Kuby J (ed), Immunology, 3rd ed. WH Freeman and Co, New York.
150. Artsob H, Spence LP, Th'ng C . 1984. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay typing of California serogroup viruses isolated in Canada. J Clin Microbiol 20 : 276 280.[PubMed]
151. Frazier CL, Shope RE . 1979. Detection of antibodies to alphaviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol 10 : 583 585.[PubMed]
152. Niklasson B, Peters CJ, Grandien M, Wood O . 1984. Detection of human immunoglobulins G and M antibodies to Rift Valley fever virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol 19 : 225 229.[PubMed]
153. Karabatsos N, Lewis AL, Calisher CH, Hunt AR, Roehrig JT . 1988. Identification of Highlands J virus from a Florida horse. Am J Trop Med Hyg 39 : 603 606.[PubMed]
154. Malan AK, Stipanovich PJ, Martins TB, Hill HR, Litwin CM . 2003. Detection of IgG and IgM to West Nile virus. Development of an immunofluorescence assay. Am J Clin Pathol 119 : 508 515.[PubMed]
155. Prince HE, Tobler LH, Lapé-Nixon M, Foster GA, Stramer SL, Busch MP . 2005. Development and persistence of West Nile virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG in viremic blood donors. J Clin Microbiol 43 : 4316 4320.[PubMed]
156. Sambol AR, Hinrichs SH, Hogrefe WR, Schweitzer BK . 2007. Performance of a commercial immunoglobulin M antibody capture assay using analyte-specific reagents to screen for interfering factors during a West Nile virus epidemic season in Nebraska. Clin Vaccine Immunol 14 : 87 89.[PubMed]
157. Westaway EG, Della-Porta AJ, Reedman BM . 1974. Specificity of IgM and IgG antibodies after challenge with antigenically related togaviruses. J Immunol 112 : 656 663.[PubMed]
158. Malan AK, Martins TB, Hill HR, Litwin CM . 2004. Evaluations of commercial West Nile virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM enzyme immunoassays show the value of continuous validation. J Clin Microbiol 42 : 727 733.[PubMed]
159. Sanchini A, Donoso-Mantke O, Papa A, Sambri V, Teichmann A, Niedrig M . 2013. Second international diagnostic accuracy study for the serological detection of West Nile virus infection. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7 : e2184.[PubMed]
160. Niedrig M, Kürsteiner O, Herzog C, Sonnenberg K . 2008. Evaluation of an indirect immunofluorescence assay for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies against yellow fever virus. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15 : 177 181.[PubMed]
161. Blacksell SD . 2012. Commercial dengue rapid diagnostic tests for point-of-care application: recent evaluations and future needs? J Biomed Biotechnol 2012 : 151967.[PubMed]
162. Welch RJ, Chang GJ, Litwin CM . 2014. Comparison of a commercial dengue IgM capture ELISA with dengue antigen focus reduction microneutralization test and the Centers for Disease Control dengue IgM capture-ELISA. J Virol Methods 195 : 247 249.[PubMed]
163. Blacksell SD, Jarman RG, Gibbons RV, Tanganuchitcharnchai A, Mammen MP Jr, Nisalak A, Kalayanarooj S, Bailey MS, Premaratna R, de Silva HJ, Day NP, Lalloo DG . 2012. Comparison of seven commercial antigen and antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of acute dengue infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol 19 : 804 810.[PubMed]
164. Alcon S, Talarmin A, Debruyne M, Falconar A, Deubel V, Flamand M . 2002. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific to Dengue virus type 1 nonstructural protein NS1 reveals circulation of the antigen in the blood during the acute phase of disease in patients experiencing primary or secondary infections. J Clin Microbiol 40 : 376 381.[PubMed]
165. Osorio L, Ramirez M, Bonelo A, Villar LA, Parra B . 2010. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of commercial NS1-based diagnostic tests for early dengue infection. Virol J 7 : 361.[PubMed]
166. Kauffman EB, Jones SA, Dupuis AP II, Ngo KA, Bernard KA, Kramer LD . 2003. Virus detection protocols for West Nile virus in vertebrate and mosquito specimens. J Clin Microbiol 41 : 3661 3667.[PubMed]
167. Salk JE . 1944. A simplified procedure for titrating hemagglutinating capacity of influenza virus and the corresponding antibody. J Immunol 49 : 87 98.
168. Clarke DH, Casals J . 1958. Techniques for hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition with arthropod-borne viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 7 : 561 573.[PubMed]
169. Atmar RL, Englund JA, . 1997. Laboratory methods for the diagnosis of viral diseases, p 59 88. In Evans AS, Kaslow RA (ed), Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control, 4th ed. Plenum, New York.
170. Beaty BJ, Calisher C, Shope RE, . 2014. Arboviruses, p 189 212. In Lennette EH, Lennette DA, Lennette ET (ed), Diagnostic Procedures for viral, rickettsial and chlamydial infections, 7th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
171. Beaty BJ, Calisher CH, Shope RE, . 1989. Arboviruses, p. 797 856. In Schmidt NJ, Emmons RW (ed), Diagnostic procedures for viral, rickettsial and chlamydial infections. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
172. Calisher CH, Fremount HN, Vesely WL, el-Kafrawi AO, Mahmud MI . 1986. Relevance of detection of immunoglobulin M antibody response in birds used for arbovirus surveillance. J Clin Microbiol 24 : 770 774.[PubMed]
173. Johnson BW, Kosoy O, Wang E, Delorey M, Russell B, Bowen RA, Weaver SC . 2011. Use of sindbis/eastern equine encephalitis chimeric viruses in plaque reduction neutralization tests for arboviral disease diagnostics. Clin Vaccine Immunol 18 : 1486 1491.[PubMed]
174. Basile AJ, Horiuchi K, Panella AJ, Laven J, Kosoy O, Lanciotti RS, Venkateswaran N, Biggerstaff BJ . 2013. Multiplex microsphere immunoassays for the detection of IgM and IgG to arboviral diseases. PLoS One 8 : e75670.[PubMed]
175. Wong SJ, Boyle RH, Demarest VL, Woodmansee AN, Kramer LD, Li H, Drebot M, Koski RA, Fikrig E, Martin DA, Shi PY . 2003. Immunoassay targeting nonstructural protein 5 to differentiate West Nile virus infection from dengue and St. Louis encephalitis virus infections and from flavivirus vaccination. J Clin Microbiol 41 : 4217 4223.[PubMed]