Chapter 37 : Human Immunodeficiency Viruses and Human T-lymphotropic Viruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Human Immunodeficiency Viruses and Human T-lymphotropic Viruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819156/9781555819149.ch37-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819156/9781555819149.ch37-2.gif


The human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and the human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) originate from zoonotic transmission of ancestor retroviruses found in primates. HIV-1 and HIV-2 are the causative agents of AIDS; HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and a broad spectrum of chronic inflammatory diseases, though only in few of those infected. The three principal questions in HIV diagnostics are (i) whether a person is HIV-infected and, if infected, (ii) with what exactly (viral properties) and (iii) how actively the virus is replicating (viral load). With regard to viral properties, identification of the virus type, i.e., HIV-1 or HIV-2, is essential for both the selection of a suitable viral load test for HIV RNA quantification in plasma and the decision with what to treat the patient. Answering these questions is important because current commercial viral load tests do not recognize HIV-2, and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) are not effective against HIV-2 or group O viruses of HIV-1. Knowledge of preexisting viral mutations conferring resistance to antiretrovirals is another important point. As antiretroviral therapy is increasingly considered essential for all HIV infected persons, it is important to answer all relevant questions already at the timepoint of HIV diagnosis. Diagnosis of HTLV infection is performed accordingly, but with some important differences. HTLV never leads to viremia. Tests for viral RNA in plasma are thus useless, and all nucleic acid testing has to be performed on cells. The most important task is to differentiate between the pathogenic HTLV-1 and the virtually nonpathogenic HTLV-2.

Citation: Schüpbach J. 2016. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses and Human T-lymphotropic Viruses, p 527-544. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch37
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Virologic and immunologic parameters and median diagnostic window periods in the typical course of HIV-1 infection. For further description refer to sections III. Clinical Significance and V. Detection/Diagnosis.

Citation: Schüpbach J. 2016. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses and Human T-lymphotropic Viruses, p 527-544. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch37
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Preferred procedure for HIV testing describing tests conducted on the first and second sample. For a detailed description refer to section VI. Best Practice.

Citation: Schüpbach J. 2016. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses and Human T-lymphotropic Viruses, p 527-544. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch37
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Gao F, Bailes E, Robertson DL, Chen Y, Rodenburg CM, Michael SF, Cummins LB, Arthur LO, Peeters M, Shaw GM, Sharp PM, Hahn BH . 1999. Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Nature 397 : 436 441[CrossRef].[PubMed]
2. Salemi M, Strimmer K, Hall WW, Duffy M, Delaporte E, Mboup S, Peeters M, Vandamme AM . 2001. Dating the common ancestor of SIVcpz and HIV-1 group M and the origin of HIV-1 subtypes using a new method to uncover clock-like molecular evolution. FASEB J 15 : 276 278. [CrossRef][PubMed]
3. Korber B, Muldoon M, Theiler J, Gao F, Gupta R, Lapedes A, Hahn BH, Wolinsky S, Bhattacharya T . 2000. Timing the ancestor of the HIV-1 pandemic strains. Science 288 : 1789 1796[CrossRef].[PubMed]
4. Lemey P, Pybus OG, Wang B, Saksena NK, Salemi M, Vandamme AM . 2003. Tracing the origin and history of the HIV-2 epidemic. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100 : 6588 6592[CrossRef].[PubMed]
5. Gessain A, Rua R, Betsem E, Turpin J, Mahieux R . 2013. HTLV-3/4 and simian foamy retroviruses in humans: discovery, epidemiology, cross-species transmission and molecular virology. Virology 435 : 187 199[CrossRef].[PubMed]
6. LeBreton M, Switzer WM, Djoko CF, Gillis A, Jia H , , et al . ( 2014) A gorilla reservoir for human T-lymphotropic virus type 4. Emerging Microbes & Infections 3 , e7 doi: 10.1038/emi.2014.7. Published 22 January 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/emi.2014.7
7. Wilen CB, Tilton JC, Doms RW . 2012. HIV: cell binding and entry. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med Aug 1 :2(8)[CrossRef].[PubMed]
8. Jones KS, Fugo K, Petrow-Sadowski C, Huang Y, Bertolette DC, Lisinski I, Cushman SW, Jacobson S, Ruscetti FW . 2006. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 use different receptor complexes to enter T cells. J Virol 80 : 8291 8302[CrossRef].[PubMed]
9. Simon V, Ho DD . 2003. HIV-1 dynamics in vivo: implications for therapy. Nat Rev Microbiol 1 : 181 190[CrossRef].[PubMed]
10. Coffin JM . 1992. Genetic diversity and evolution of retroviruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 176 : 143 164[CrossRef].[PubMed]
11. Wain-Hobson S . 1992. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 quasispecies in vivo and ex vivo. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 176 : 181 193[CrossRef].[PubMed]
12. Siliciano JD, Kajdas J, Finzi D, Quinn TC, Chadwick K, Margolick JB, Kovacs C, Gange SJ, Siliciano RF . 2003. Long-term follow-up studies confirm the stability of the latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells. Nat Med 9 : 727 728[CrossRef].[PubMed]
13. Van Dooren S, Salemi M, Vandamme AM . 2001. Dating the origin of the African human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-i (HTLV-I) subtypes. Mol Biol Evol 18 : 661 671[CrossRef].[PubMed]
14. Igakura T, Stinchcombe JC, Goon PK, Taylor GP, Weber JN, Griffiths GM, Tanaka Y, Osame M, Bangham CR . 2003. Spread of HTLV-I between lymphocytes by virus-induced polarization of the cytoskeleton. Science 299 : 1713 1716[CrossRef].[PubMed]
15. Pais-Correia AM, Sachse M, Guadagnini S, Robbiati V, Lasserre R, Gessain A, Gout O, Alcover A, Thoulouze MI . 2010. Biofilm-like extracellular viral assemblies mediate HTLV-1 cell-to-cell transmission at virological synapses. Nat Med 16 : 83 89[CrossRef].[PubMed]
16. Bangham CR, Cook LB, Melamed A . 2014. HTLV-1 clonality in adult T-cell leukaemia and non-malignant HTLV-1 infection. Semin Cancer Biol 26 : 89 98[CrossRef].[PubMed]
17. Matsuoka M, Yasunaga J . 2013. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1: replication, proliferation and propagation by Tax and HTLV-1 bZIP factor. Curr Opin Virol 3 : 684 691[CrossRef].[PubMed]
18. Korber B, Gaschen B, Yusim K, Thakallapally R, Kesmir C, Detours V . 2001. Evolutionary and immunological implications of contemporary HIV-1 variation. Br Med Bull 58 : 19 42[CrossRef].[PubMed]
19. Hemelaar J, Gouws E, Ghys PD, Osmanov S . 2006. Global and regional distribution of HIV-1 genetic subtypes and recombinants in 2004. AIDS 20 : W13 23[CrossRef].[PubMed]
20. Simon F, Mauclère P, Roques P, Loussert-Ajaka I, Müller-Trutwin MC, Saragosti S, Georges-Courbot MC, Barré-Sinoussi F, Brun-Vézinet F . 1998. Identification of a new human immunodeficiency virus type 1 distinct from group M and group O. Nat Med 4 : 1032 1037[CrossRef].[PubMed]
21. Patel P, Borkowf CB, Brooks JT, Lasry A, Lansky A, Mermin J . 2014. Estimating per-act HIV transmission risk: a systematic review. AIDS 28 : 1509 1519[CrossRef].[PubMed]
22. Quinn TC, Wawer MJ, Sewankambo N, Serwadda D, Li C, Wabwire-Mangen F, Meehan MO, Lutalo T, Gray RH Rakai Project Study Group . 2000. Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. N Engl J Med 342 : 921 929[CrossRef].[PubMed]
23. Wawer MJ, Gray RH, Sewankambo NK, Serwadda D, Li X, Laeyendecker O, Kiwanuka N, Kigozi G, Kiddugavu M, Lutalo T, Nalugoda F, Wabwire-Mangen F, Meehan MP, Quinn TC . 2005. Rates of HIV-1 transmission per coital act, by stage of HIV-1 infection, in Rakai, Uganda. J Infect Dis 191 : 1403 1409[CrossRef].[PubMed]
24. Kaul R , , et al . 2008. The genital tract immune milieu: an important determinant of HIV susceptibility and secondary transmission. J Reprod Immunol. 77( 1): 32 40. [CrossRef][PubMed]
25. Galvin SR, Cohen MS . 2004. The role of sexually transmitted diseases in HIV transmission. Nat Rev Microbiol 2 : 33 42[CrossRef].[PubMed]
26. Vrielink H, Reesink HW . 2004. HTLV-I/II prevalence in different geographic locations. Transfus Med Rev 18 : 46 57[CrossRef].[PubMed]
27. Hall WW, Takahashi H, Liu C, Kaplan MH, Scheewind O, Ijichi S, Nagashima K, Gallo RC . 1992. Multiple isolates and characteristics of human T-cell leukemia virus type II. J Virol 66 : 2456 2463.[PubMed]
28. Vandamme AM, Salemi M, Van Brussel M, Liu HF, Van Laethem K, Van Ranst M, Michels L, Desmyter J, Goubau P . 1998. African origin of human T-lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) supported by a potential new HTLV-2d subtype in Congolese Bambuti Efe Pygmies. J Virol 72 : 4327 4340.[PubMed]
29. Ando Y, Ekuni Y, Matsumoto Y, Nakano S, Saito K, Kakimoto K, Tanigawa T, Kawa M, Toyama T . 2004. Long-term serological outcome of infants who received frozen-thawed milk from human T-lymphotropic virus type-I positive mothers. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 30 : 436 438[CrossRef].[PubMed]
30. Hirata M, Hayashi J, Noguchi A, Nakashima K, Kajiyama W, Kashiwagi S, Sawada T . 1992. The effects of breastfeeding and presence of antibody to p40tax protein of human T cell lymphotropic virus type-I on mother to child transmission. Int J Epidemiol 21 : 989 994[CrossRef].[PubMed]
31. Hino S, Katamine S, Miyata H, Tsuji Y, Yamabe T, Miyamoto T . 1996. Primary prevention of HTLV-I in Japan. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 13( Suppl 1) : S199 S203. Review. 34 refs[CrossRef].[PubMed]
32. Li HC, Biggar RJ, Miley WJ, Maloney EM, Cranston B, Hanchard B, Hisada M . 2004. Provirus load in breast milk and risk of mother-to-child transmission of human T lymphotropic virus type I. J Infect Dis 190 : 1275 1278[CrossRef].[PubMed]
33. Okochi K, Sato H, Hinuma Y . 1984. A retrospective study on transmission of adult T cell leukemia virus by blood transfusion: seroconversion in recipients. Vox Sang 46 : 245 253[CrossRef].[PubMed]
34. Manns A, Hisada M, La Grenade L . 1999. Human T-lymphotropic virus type I infection. Lancet 353 : 1951 1958. Review. 82 refs[CrossRef].[PubMed]
35. Barré-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, Dauguet C, Axler-Blin C, Vézinet-Brun F, Rouzioux C, Rozenbaum W, Montagnier L . 1983. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science 220 : 868 871[CrossRef].[PubMed]
36. Popovic M, Sarngadharan MG, Read E, Gallo RC . 1984. Detection, isolation, and continuous production of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and pre-AIDS. Science 224 : 497 500[CrossRef].[PubMed]
37. Gallo RC, Salahuddin S, Popovic M, Shearer G, Kaplan M, Haynes B, Palker T, Redfield R, Oleske J, Safai B , , et al . 1984. Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. Science 224 : 500 503[CrossRef].[PubMed]
38. Schüpbach J, Popovic M, Gilden RV, Gonda MA, Sarngadharan MG, Gallo RC . 1984. Serological analysis of a subgroup of human T-lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV-III) associated with AIDS. Science 224 : 503 505[CrossRef].[PubMed]
39. Sarngadharan MG, Popovic M, Bruch L, Schüpbach J, Gallo RC . 1984. Antibodies reactive with human T-lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV-III) in the serum of patients with AIDS. Science 224 : 506 508[CrossRef].[PubMed]
40. Levy JA, Hoffman AD, Kramer SM, Landis JA, Shimabukuro JM, Oshiro LS . 1984. Isolation of lymphocytopathic retroviruses from San Francisco patients with AIDS. Science 225 : 840 842[CrossRef].[PubMed]
41. Anonymous, Centers for Disease Control (CDC) . 1981 . Pneumocystis pneumonia—Los Angeles. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 30 : 250252.[PubMed]
42. Coffin J, Swanstrom R . 2013. HIV pathogenesis: dynamics and genetics of viral populations and infected cells. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 3 : a012526[CrossRef].[PubMed]
43. Chereshnev VA, Bocharov G, Bazhan S, Bachmetyev B, Gainova I, Likhoshvai V, Argilaguet JM, Martinez JP, Rump JA, Mothe B, Brander C, Meyerhans A . 2013. Pathogenesis and treatment of HIV infection: the cellular, the immune system and the neuroendocrine systems perspective. Int Rev Immunol 32 : 282 306[CrossRef].[PubMed]
44. Maartens G, Celum C, Lewin SR . 2014. HIV infection: epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention. Lancet 384 : 258 271[CrossRef].[PubMed]
45. Doitsh G, Galloway NL, Geng X, Yang Z, Monroe KM, Zepeda O, Hunt PW, Hatano H, Sowinski S, Muñoz-Arias I, Greene WC . 2014. Cell death by pyroptosis drives CD4 T-cell depletion in HIV-1 infection. Nature 505 : 509 514[CrossRef].[PubMed]
46. Clavel F, Guyader M, Guétard D, Sallé M, Montagnier L, Alizon M . 1986. Molecular cloning and polymorphism of the human immune deficiency virus type 2. Nature 324 : 691 695[CrossRef].[PubMed]
47. Nyamweya S, Hegedus A, Jaye A, Rowland-Jones S, Flanagan KL, Macallan DC . 2013. Comparing HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection: lessons for viral immunopathogenesis. Rev Med Virol 23 : 221 240[CrossRef].[PubMed]
48. Campbell-Yesufu OT, Gandhi RT . 2011. Update on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-2 infection. Clin Infect Dis 52 : 780 787[CrossRef].[PubMed]
49. Takatsuki K, Uchiyama J, Sagawa K, Yodi J . 1996. Adult T-cell leukemia in Japan. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 13 Suppl 1:S15-9.
50. Uchiyama T, Yodoi J, Sagawa K, Takatsuki K, Uchino H . 1977. Adult T-cell leukemia: clinical and hematologic features of 16 cases. Blood 50 : 481 492.[PubMed]
51. Poiesz BJ, Ruscetti FW, Reitz MS, Kalyanaraman VS, Gallo RC . 1981. Isolation of a new type C retrovirus (HTLV) in primary uncultured cells of a patient with Sézary T-cell leukaemia. Nature 294 : 268 271[CrossRef].[PubMed]
52. Yoshida M, Miyoshi I, Hinuma Y . 1982. Isolation and characterization of retrovirus from cell lines of human adult T-cell leukemia and its implication in the disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79 : 2031 2035[CrossRef].[PubMed]
53. Gessain A, Barin F, Vernant JC, Gout O, Maurs L, Calender A, de Thé G . 1985. Antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus type-I in patients with tropical spastic paraparesis. Lancet 2 : 407 410[CrossRef].[PubMed]
54. Osame M, Usuku K, Izumo S, Ijichi N, Amitani H, Igata A, Matsumoto M, Tara M . 1986. HTLV-I associated myelopathy, a new clinical entity. Lancet 1 : 1031 1032. letter[CrossRef].[PubMed]
55. Mochizuki M, Watanabe T, Yamaguchi K, Tajima K, Yoshimura K, Nakashima S, Shirao M, Araki S, Miyata N, Mori S, Takatsuki K . 1992. Uveitis associated with human T lymphotropic virus type I: seroepidemiologic, clinical, and virologic studies. J Infect Dis 166 : 943 944. letter[CrossRef].[PubMed]
56. La Grenade L, Manns A, Fletcher V, Derm D, Carberry C, Hanchard B, Maloney EM, Cranston B, Williams NP, Wilks R, Kang EC, Blattner WA . 1998. Clinical, pathologic, and immunologic features of human T-lymphotrophic virus type I-associated infective dermatitis in children. Arch Dermatol 134 : 439 444[CrossRef].[PubMed]
57. Satou Y, Matsuoka M . 2013. Virological and immunological mechanisms in the pathogenesis of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. Rev Med Virol 23 : 269 280[CrossRef].[PubMed]
58. Tsukasaki K, Tobinai K . 2013. Biology and treatment of HTLV-1 associated T-cell lymphomas. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 26 : 3 14[CrossRef].[PubMed]
59. Kalyanaraman VS, Sarngadharan MG, Robert-Guroff M, Miyoshi I, Golde D, Gallo RC . 1982. A new subtype of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-II) associated with a T-cell variant of hairy cell leukemia. Science 218 : 571 573[CrossRef].[PubMed]
60. Rosenblatt JD, Golde DW, Wachsman W, Giorgi JV, Jacobs A, Schmidt GM, Quan S, Gasson JC, Chen IS . 1986. A second isolate of HTLV-II associated with atypical hairy-cell leukemia. N Engl J Med 315 : 372 377[CrossRef].[PubMed]
61. Hjelle B, Mills R, Swenson S, Mertz G, Key C, Allen S . 1991. Incidence of hairy cell leukemia, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia in first known HTLV-II-endemic population. J Infect Dis 163 : 435 440[CrossRef].[PubMed]
62. Ciminale V, Rende F, Bertazzoni U, Romanelli MG . 2014. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2: highly similar viruses with distinct oncogenic properties. Front Microbiol 5 : 398[CrossRef].[PubMed]
63. O'Brien WA, Hartigan PM, Martin D, Esinhart J, Hill A, Benoit S, Rubin M, Simberkoff MS, Hamilton JD Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on AIDS . 1996. Changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4+ lymphocyte counts and the risk of progression to AIDS. N Engl J Med 334 : 426 431[CrossRef].[PubMed]
64. Barouch DH, Deeks SG . 2014. Immunologic strategies for HIV-1 remission and eradication. Science 345 : 169 174[CrossRef].[PubMed]
65. Weller S, Davis K . 2002. Condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual HIV transmission. Cochrane Database Syst Rev ( 1) : CD003255.[PubMed]
66. Montaner JS, Hogg R, Wood E, Kerr T, Tyndall M, Levy AR, Harrigan PR . 2006. The case for expanding access to highly active antiretroviral therapy to curb the growth of the HIV epidemic. Lancet 368 : 531 536[CrossRef].[PubMed]
67. Green EC, Halperin DT, Nantulya V, Hogle JA . 2006. Uganda's HIV prevention success: the role of sexual behavior change and the national response. AIDS Behav 10 : 335 346, discussion 347–350[CrossRef].[PubMed]
68. Shelton JD, Halperin DT, Nantulya V, Potts M, Gayle HD, Holmes KK . 2004. Partner reduction is crucial for balanced “ABC” approach to HIV prevention. BMJ 328 : 891 893[CrossRef].[PubMed]
69. Gray RH, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, Makumbi F, Watya S, Nalugoda F, Kiwanuka N, Moulton LH, Chaudhary MA, Chen MZ, Sewankambo NK, Wabwire-Mangen F, Bacon MC, Williams CF, Opendi P, Reynolds SJ, Laeyendecker O, Quinn TC, Wawer MJ . 2007. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial. Lancet 369 : 657 666[CrossRef].[PubMed]
70. Bailey RC, Moses S, Parker CB, Agot K, Maclean I, Krieger JN, Williams CF, Campbell RT, Ndinya-Achola JO . 2007. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 369 : 643 656[CrossRef].[PubMed]
71. Olsen JS, Easterhoff D, Dewhurst S . 2011. Advances in HIV microbicide development. Future Med Chem 3 : 2101 2116[CrossRef].[PubMed]
72. Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, Srivastava PU, Marcus R, Abiteboul D, Heptonstall J, Ippolito G, Lot F, McKibben PS, Bell DM Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Needlestick Surveillance Group . 1997. A case-control study of HIV seroconversion in health care workers after percutaneous exposure. N Engl J Med 337 : 1485 1490[CrossRef].[PubMed]
73. CDC. 2007. CDC Trials of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention.
74. De Man J, Colebunders R, Florence E, Laga M, Kenyon C . 2013. What is the place of pre-exposure prophylaxis in HIV prevention? AIDS Rev 15 : 102 111.[PubMed]
75. Datta A, Bellon M, Sinha-Datta U, Bazarbachi A, Lepelletier Y, Canioni D, Waldmann TA, Hermine O, Nicot C . 2006. Persistent inhibition of telomerase reprograms adult T-cell leukemia to p53-dependent senescence. Blood 108 : 1021 1029[CrossRef].[PubMed]
76. Marçais A, Suarez F, Sibon D, Frenzel L, Hermine O, Bazarbachi A . 2013. Therapeutic options for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Curr Oncol Rep 15 : 457 464[CrossRef].[PubMed]
77. Takatsuki K, Matsuoka M, Yamaguchi K . 1996. Adult T-cell leukemia in Japan. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 13( Suppl 1) : S15 S19. Review. 38 refs[CrossRef].[PubMed]
78. Kassutto S, Johnston MN, Rosenberg ES . 2005. Incomplete HIV type 1 antibody evolution and seroreversion in acutely infected individuals treated with early antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 40 : 868 873[CrossRef].[PubMed]
79. Petersen LR, Satten GA, Dodd R, Busch M, Kleinman S, Grindon A, Lenes B The HIV Seroconversion Study Group . 1994. Duration of time from onset of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infectiousness to development of detectable antibody. Transfusion 34 : 283 289[CrossRef].[PubMed]
80. Busch MP, Lee LL, Satten GA, Henrard DR, Farzadegan H, Nelson KE, Read S, Dodd RY, Petersen LR . 1995. Time course of detection of viral and serologic markers preceding human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion: implications for screening of blood and tissue donors. Transfusion 35 : 91 97[CrossRef].[PubMed]
81. Fiebig EW, Wright DJ, Rawal BD, Garrett PE, Schumacher RT, Peddada L, Heldebrant C, Smith R, Conrad A, Kleinman SH, Busch MP . 2003. Dynamics of HIV viremia and antibody seroconversion in plasma donors: implications for diagnosis and staging of primary HIV infection. AIDS 17 : 1871 1879[CrossRef].[PubMed]
82. Ciesielski CA, Metler RP . 1997. Duration of time between exposure and seroconversion in healthcare workers with occupationally acquired infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Med 102( 5B) : 115 116. Review. 11 refs[CrossRef].[PubMed]
83. Busch MP, Satten GA ( 1997) Time course of viremia and antibody seroconversion following human immunodeficiency virus exposure. Review. 43 refs. Am J Med 102 : 117- 124; discussion 125-116.
84. Vetter BN, Shah C, Huder JB, Böni J, Schüpbach J . 2014. Use of reverse-transcriptase-based HIV-1 viral load assessment to confirm low viral loads in newly diagnosed patients in Switzerland. BMC Infect Dis 14 : 84[CrossRef].[PubMed]
85. Gürtler L, Mühlbacher A, Michl U, Hofmann H, Paggi GG, Bossi V, Thorstensson R, G-Villaescusa R, Eiras A, Hernandez JM, Melchior W, Donie F, Weber B . 1998. Reduction of the diagnostic window with a new combined p24 antigen and human immunodeficiency virus antibody screening assay. J Virol Methods 75 : 27 38[CrossRef].[PubMed]
86. Weber B, Fall EHM, Berger A, Doerr HW . 1998. Reduction of diagnostic window by new fourth-generation human immunodeficiency virus screening assays. J Clin Microbiol 36 : 2235 2239.[PubMed]
87. Weber B, Meier T, Enders G . 2002. Fourth generation human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening assays with an improved sensitivity for p24 antigen close the second diagnostic window in primary HIV infection. J Clin Virol 25 : 357 359[CrossRef].[PubMed]
88. Yerly S, Vora S, Rizzardi P, Chave JP, Vernazza PL, Flepp M, Telenti A, Battegay M, Veuthey AL, Bru JP, Rickenbach M, Hirschel B, Perrin L Swiss HIV Cohort Study . 2001. Acute HIV infection: impact on the spread of HIV and transmission of drug resistance. AIDS 15 : 2287 2292[CrossRef].[PubMed]
89. Vetter B, , et al . 2014. Generation of a recombinant Gag virus-like-particle panel for the evaluation of p24 antigen detection by diagnostic HIV tests (accepted). PLoS One.
90. Duong YT, Mavengere Y, Patel H, Moore C, Manjengwa J, Sibandze D, Rasberry C, Mlambo C, Li Z, Emel L, Bock N, Moore J, Nkambule R, Justman J, Reed J, Bicego G, Ellenberger DL, Nkengasong JN, Parekh BS . 2014. Poor performance of the determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab combo fourth-generation rapid test for detection of acute infections in a National Household Survey in Swaziland. J Clin Microbiol 52 : 3743 3748[CrossRef].[PubMed]
91. Rosenberg NE, Kamanga G, Phiri S, Nsona D, Pettifor A, Rutstein SE, Kamwendo D, Hoffman IF, Keating M, Brown LB, Ndalama B, Fiscus SA, Congdon S, Cohen MS, Miller WC . 2012. Detection of acute HIV infection: a field evaluation of the determine® HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab combo test. J Infect Dis 205 : 528 534[CrossRef].[PubMed]
92. Taegtmeyer M, MacPherson P, Jones K, Hopkins M, Moorcroft J, Lalloo DG, Chawla A . 2011. Programmatic evaluation of a combined antigen and antibody test for rapid HIV diagnosis in a community and sexual health clinic screening programme. PLoS One 6 : e28019[CrossRef].[PubMed]
93. Ly TD, Plantier JC, Leballais L, Gonzalo S, Lemée V, Laperche S . 2012. The variable sensitivity of HIV Ag/Ab combination assays in the detection of p24Ag according to genotype could compromise the diagnosis of early HIV infection. J Clin Virol 55 : 121 127[CrossRef].[PubMed]
94. Henrard DR, Daar E, Farzadegan H, Clark SJ, Phillips J, Shaw GM, Busch MP . 1995. Virologic and immunologic characterization of symptomatic and asymptomatic primary HIV-1 infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 9 : 305 310[CrossRef].[PubMed]
95. Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. 2014. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. In: Services DoHaH, (ed.), Department of Health and Human Services.
96. WHO . 2010. WHO recommendations on the diagnosis of HIV infection in infants and children. Recommendations and Annexes downloadable from http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/paediatric/diagnosis/en/.
97. Burgard M, Blanche S, Jasseron C, Descamps P, Allemon MC, Ciraru-Vigneron N, Floch C, Heller-Roussin B, Lachassinne E, Mazy F, Warszawski J, Rouzioux C . 2012. Performance of HIV-1 DNA or HIV-1 RNA tests for early diagnosis of perinatal HIV-1 infection during anti-retroviral prophylaxis. J Pediatr 160 : 60- 66, e61[CrossRef].
98. Nadal D, Böni J, Kind C, Varnier OE, Steiner F, Tomasik Z, Schüpbach J . 1999. Prospective evaluation of amplification-boosted ELISA for heat-denatured p24 antigen for diagnosis and monitoring of pediatric HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis 180 : 1089 1095[CrossRef].[PubMed]
99. Fiscus SA, Cheng B, Crowe SM, Demeter L, Jennings C, Miller V, Respess R, Stevens W Forum for Collaborative HIV Research Alternative Viral Load Assay Working Group . 2006. HIV-1 viral load assays for resource-limited settings. PLoS Med 3 : e417[CrossRef].[PubMed]
100. Branson BM, Handsfield HH, Lampe MA, Janssen RS, Taylor AW, , et al . 2006. Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. MMWR Recomm Rep 55 : 1- 17; quiz CE11-14.
101. Cazein F, Hamers F, Alix J, Brunet JB . 1996. Prevalence of HIV-2 infection in Europe. Euro Surveill 1 : 21 23.[PubMed]
102. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . 2011. HIV-2 Infection Surveillance—United States, 1987–2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 60 : 985988.[PubMed]
103. Walther L, Putkonen P, Dias F, Biberfeld G, Thorstensson R . 1995. Evaluation of HIV-1/HIV-2 immunoblots for detection of HIV-2 antibodies. Clin Diagn Virol 4 : 67 79[CrossRef].[PubMed]
104. Schüpbach J, Gebhardt MD, Tomasik Z, Niederhauser C, Yerly S, Bürgisser P, Matter L, Gorgievski M, Dubs R, Schultze D, Steffen I, Andreutti C, Martinetti G, Güntert B, Staub R, Daneel S, Vernazza P . 2007. Assessment of recent HIV-1 infection by a line immunoassay for HIV-1/2 confirmation. PLoS Med 4 : e343[CrossRef].[PubMed]
105. Schüpbach J, Niederhauser C, Yerly S, Regenass S, Gorgievski M . Continuous Decline of Incident HIV-1 Infection by 50% in Switzerland 2008—2013 Shown by a HIV Line-Immunoassay-Based National Surveillance System. PLoS Med (Submitted).
106. Branson BM, Ginocchio CC . 2013. Introduction to 2013 Journal of Clinical Virology supplement on HIV testing algorithms. J Clin Virol 58( Suppl 1) : e1 e134[CrossRef].[PubMed]
107. Günthard HF, Huber M, Kuster H, Shah C, Schüpbach J, Trkola A, Böni J . 2009. HIV-1 superinfection in an HIV-2-infected woman with subsequent control of HIV-1 plasma viremia. Clin Infect Dis 48 : e117 e120[CrossRef].[PubMed]
108. Frentz D, Boucher CA, van de Vijver DA . 2012. Temporal changes in the epidemiology of transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 across the world. AIDS Rev 14 : 17 27.[PubMed]
109. Tang MW, Shafer RW . 2012. HIV-1 antiretroviral resistance: scientific principles and clinical applications. Drugs 72 : e1 e25[CrossRef].[PubMed]
110. Vandekerckhove LP, Wensing AM, Kaiser R, Brun-Vézinet F, Clotet B, De Luca A, Dressler S, Garcia F, Geretti AM, Klimkait T, Korn K, Masquelier B, Perno CF, Schapiro JM, Soriano V, Sönnerborg A, Vandamme AM, Verhofstede C, Walter H, Zazzi M, Boucher CA European Consensus Group on clinical management of tropism testing . 2011. European guidelines on the clinical management of HIV-1 tropism testing. Lancet Infect Dis 11 : 394 407[CrossRef].[PubMed]
111. Mellors JW, Rinaldo CR Jr, Gupta P, White RM, Todd JA, Kingsley LA . 1996. Prognosis in HIV-1 infection predicted by the quantity of virus in plasma. Science 272 : 1167 1170[CrossRef].[PubMed]
112. Korn K, Weissbrich B, Henke-Gendo C, Heim A, Jauer CM, Taylor N, Eberle J . 2009. Single-point mutations causing more than 100-fold underestimation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) load with the Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 real-time PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 47 : 1238 1240[CrossRef].[PubMed]
113. Peeters M, Aghokeng AF, Delaporte E . 2010. Genetic diversity among HIV-1 non-B subtypes in viral load and drug resistance assays. (accepted article); http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123591652/abstract. Clinical Microbiology and Infection.
114. Muenchhoff M, Madurai S, Hempenstall AJ, Adland E, Carlqvist A, Moonsamy A, Jaggernath M, Mlotshwa B, Siboto E, Ndung'u T, Goulder PJ . 2014. Evaluation of the NucliSens EasyQ v2.0 assay in comparison with the Roche Amplicor v1.5 and the Roche CAP/CTM HIV-1 Test v2.0 in quantification of C-clade HIV-1 in plasma. PLoS One 9 : e103983[CrossRef].[PubMed]
115. Sollis KA, Smit PW, Fiscus S, Ford N, Vitoria M, Essajee S, Barnett D, Cheng B, Crowe SM, Denny T, Landay A, Stevens W, Habiyambere V, Perrins J, Peeling RW . 2014. Systematic review of the performance of HIV viral load technologies on plasma samples. PLoS One 9 : e85869[CrossRef].[PubMed]
116. Pyra H, Böni J, Schüpbach J . 1994. Ultrasensitive retrovirus detection by a reverse transcriptase assay based on product enhancement. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91 : 1544 1548[CrossRef].[PubMed]
117. Bürgisser P, Vernazza P, Flepp M, Böni J, Tomasik Z, Hummel U, Pantaleo G, Schüpbach J . 2000. Performance of five different assays for the quantification of viral load in persons infected with various subtypes of HIV-1. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 23 : 138 144[CrossRef].[PubMed]
118. Malm K, Kjerstadius T, Andersson S . 2010. Evaluation of a new screening assay for HTLV-1 and -2 antibodies for large-scale use. J Med Virol 82 : 1606 1611[CrossRef].[PubMed]
119. Böni J, Bisset LR, Burckhardt JJ, Joller-Jemelka HI, Bürgisser P, Perrin L, Gorgievski M, Erb P, Fierz W, Piffaretti JC, Schüpbach J. 2004. Prevalence of human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II in Switzerland. J Med Virol 72 : 328 337[CrossRef].[PubMed]
120. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the USPHS Working Group: guidelines for counselling persons infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) and type II (HTLV-II). 1993. Ann Intern Med 118 : 448454[CrossRef].[PubMed]
121. Medrano FJ, Soriano V, Calderón EJ, Rey C, Gutiérrez M, Bravo R, Leal M, González-Lahoz J, Lissen E . 1997. Significance of indeterminate reactivity to human T-cell lymphotropic virus in western blot analysis of individuals at risk. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 16 : 249 252[CrossRef].[PubMed]
122. Thorstensson R, Albert J, Andersson S . 2002. Strategies for diagnosis of HTLV-I and -II. Transfusion 42 : 780 791[CrossRef].[PubMed]
123. Schüpbach J, Kalyanaraman VS . 1989. Detection of high concentrations of HTLV-1 p24 and a novel gag precursor, p45, in serum immune complexes of a healthy seropositive individual. Int J Cancer 44 : 90 94[CrossRef].[PubMed]
124. Defer C, Coste J, Descamps F, Voisin S, Lemaire JM, Maniez M, Couroucé AM Retrovirus Study Group of the French Society of Blood Transfusion . 1995. Contribution of polymerase chain reaction and radioimmunoprecipitation assay in the confirmation of human T-lymphotropic virus infection in French blood donors. Transfusion 35 : 596 600[CrossRef].[PubMed]
125. Kwok S, Lipka JJ, McKinney N, Kellogg DE, Poiesz B, Foung SK, Sninsky JJ . 1990. Low incidence of HTLV infections in random blood donors with indeterminate western blot patterns. Transfusion 30 : 491 494[CrossRef].[PubMed]
126. Böni J, Bisset LR, Burckhardt JJ, Joller-Jemelka HI, Bürgisser P, Perrin L, Gorgievski M, Erb P, Fierz W, Piffaretti JC, Schüpbach J. 2004. Prevalence of human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II in Switzerland. J Med Virol 72 : 328 337[CrossRef].[PubMed]
127. Waters A, Oliveira AL, Coughlan S, de Venecia C, Schor D, Leite AC, Araújo AQ, Hall WW . 2011. Multiplex real-time PCR for the detection and quantitation of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 proviral load: addressing the issue of indeterminate HTLV results. J Clin Virol 52 : 38 44[CrossRef].[PubMed]
128. Etoh K, Yamaguchi K, Tokudome S, Watanabe T, Okayama A, Stuver S, Mueller N, Takatsuki K, Matsuoka M . 1999. Rapid quantification of HTLV-I provirus load: detection of monoclonal proliferation of HTLV-I-infected cells among blood donors. Int J Cancer 81 : 859 864[CrossRef].[PubMed]


Generic image for table

The principal questions of HIV diagnosis and how best to answer them

Citation: Schüpbach J. 2016. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses and Human T-lymphotropic Viruses, p 527-544. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch37
Generic image for table

Breakdown of procedures undertaken in a reference lab during repeat testing of HIV-positive samples with additional reactivity or high-negative results in HTLV-1/2 ELISA screening. (Reprinted from ( ) with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Schüpbach J. 2016. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses and Human T-lymphotropic Viruses, p 527-544. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch37

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error