Chapter 15 : Intravital Imaging of Myeloid Cells: Inflammatory Migration and Resident Patrolling

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The first documented experiments using intravital microscopy were performed in the 19th century, in which very thin translucent tissues were used so that light could penetrate through the tissue and leukocyte trafficking could be observed ( ). Neither human tissues nor solid organs in animal models could be used at the time. As such, tissues like the rodent mesentery, cremaster muscle, and ear and the bat wing were the preparations of choice for the next century. This type of imaging unveiled the very dynamic interaction of immune cells with vessel walls. The experimentalists tried to keep the conditions as close to the natural environment as was feasible. The bat wing and ear vasculatures required no surgery, making them likely the least perturbed approach. The mesentery and cremaster, which required only minor surgery, likely did induce a nonphysiologic baseline of leukocyte-vessel wall interactions. However, this came with the benefit of being able to examine cellular functions and behaviors under shear forces associated with blood flow as well as the surrounding architecture of capillaries and venules that was impossible to replicate . Indeed, as diligent as experimentalists were, settings could not completely replicate the behavior of immune cells as they interacted with each other, red blood cells and platelets in capillaries and postcapillary venules surrounded by pericytes and with macrophages, mast cells, and the myriad of other resident immune and parenchymal cells that constitute a living organ. Moreover, interorgan and neural communications were also not possible . However, it is always critical to remember that rodents, bats, and fish are not humans, and so all interpretations must be made with this in mind. It is also worth mentioning that many of the discoveries were made hand in hand with key experiments that allowed simplification of the complex model to elucidate cellular and molecular events.

Citation: Deniset J, Kubes P. 2017. Intravital Imaging of Myeloid Cells: Inflammatory Migration and Resident Patrolling, p 273-293. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0042-2016
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Figure 1

Classical leukocyte recruitment cascade. Depicted are the sequential steps of leukocyte recruitment from the vasculature into the tissue. Selectins and their ligands mediate initial tethering and rolling along the vascular wall. Engagement of intermediate chemokine receptors with their ligands lining the endothelium stimulates activation of integrins on the leukocyte cell surface, enabling their interaction with their respective receptors to facilitate arrest, adhesion, and subsequent transmigration by paracellular or transcellular routes. Chemotactic gradients of intermediate and end-target chemokines guide leukocytes to sites of transmigration and promote directed migration to the site of injury or infection within the tissue.

Citation: Deniset J, Kubes P. 2017. Intravital Imaging of Myeloid Cells: Inflammatory Migration and Resident Patrolling, p 273-293. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0042-2016
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

KC capture of circulating bacteria . Time-lapse spinning-disk confocal microscopy images of (-GFP; green) catching by liver KCs (F4/80; red) in wild-type (WT) (top) or CRIg (bottom) animals. White arrows, KC-bound bacteria. Bars, 50 μm.

Citation: Deniset J, Kubes P. 2017. Intravital Imaging of Myeloid Cells: Inflammatory Migration and Resident Patrolling, p 273-293. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0042-2016
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