Chapter 16 : Multifaceted Functions of NOD-Like Receptor Proteins in Myeloid Cells at the Intersection of Innate and Adaptive Immunity

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Multifaceted Functions of NOD-Like Receptor Proteins in Myeloid Cells at the Intersection of Innate and Adaptive Immunity, Page 1 of 2

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The existence of extracellular pattern recognition was appreciated early on after formation of the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) theory ( ) by the identification of Toll in and cloning of the lipopolysaccharide sensor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in mammals (see reference for a historical overview). However, it was evident that intracellular bacterial pathogens also induce inflammatory responses in infected cells, although the dedicated receptors for sensing of such threats remained elusive for some time. Analysis of invasive pathogenic bacteria and viruses showed that indeed such receptors exist. In recent decades, these cytosolic PRRs and their cognate microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) were identified.

Citation: Kufer T, Nigro G, Sansonetti P. 2017. Multifaceted Functions of NOD-Like Receptor Proteins in Myeloid Cells at the Intersection of Innate and Adaptive Immunity, p 295-304. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0021-2015
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Figure 1

Different functions of NLRs in myeloid cells and progenitors. The circulating MAMPs, particularly peptidoglycan (PGN), contribute to activation and differentiation of HSCs. Stimulation by MAMPs, particularly PGN, activates innate immunity through recognition by PRR receptors, inducing their maturation and production of cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF. NLRs also stimulate the adaptive immunity, particularly in regulating MHC expression levels and in stimulating the inflammasome.

Citation: Kufer T, Nigro G, Sansonetti P. 2017. Multifaceted Functions of NOD-Like Receptor Proteins in Myeloid Cells at the Intersection of Innate and Adaptive Immunity, p 295-304. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0021-2015
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