Chapter 18 : Inflammation—a Critical Appreciation of the Role of Myeloid Cells

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Multicellular organisms have had to develop a rapid response to infection and tissue injury. In all animals on our planet, this involves mobilization of specialized cells to the focus of the infection or injury. This important insight was beautifully illustrated by Elie Metchnikoff, whose detailed drawings of cells being recruited to the site of injury caused by a rose thorn in a starfish embryo gave us the first glimpse of cells he termed “macrophages,” and neutrophils, which he termed “microphages.” If not the first person to observe phagocytosis and leukocyte diapedesis, Metchnikoff was probably the first person to fully appreciate the role of these two important cellular processes in “natural” or innate immunity ( ).

Citation: Iqbal A, Fisher E, Greaves D. 2017. Inflammation—a Critical Appreciation of the Role of Myeloid Cells, p 325-342. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0027-2016
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Figure 1

Time course of a typical acute inflammatory response. A schematic representation of the ideal outcome of an acute inflammatory response, i.e., resolution, is shown as a dashed line. Two potential outcomes leading to significant clinical sequelae are shown: hyperacute inflammation, e.g., septic shock; and nonresolving, chronic inflammation, e.g., RA. Adapted from an original figure by Christopher Buckley, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Citation: Iqbal A, Fisher E, Greaves D. 2017. Inflammation—a Critical Appreciation of the Role of Myeloid Cells, p 325-342. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0027-2016
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Figure 2

The inflammatory set point hypothesis. This schematic representation highlights the balance between locally produced proinflammatory and endogenous anti-inflammatory/proresolution mediators in determining the magnitude of the inflammatory response to a given stimulus.

Citation: Iqbal A, Fisher E, Greaves D. 2017. Inflammation—a Critical Appreciation of the Role of Myeloid Cells, p 325-342. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0027-2016
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Figure 3

Inflammaging: do inflammatory responses change with age? This schematic representation compares the “normal” inflammatory response (solid line) with the inflammatory response seen in aged populations (dashed line). Aged populations show increased basal levels of systemic inflammation and may show differences in the magnitude of the response to inflammatory stimuli and/or altered resolution.

Citation: Iqbal A, Fisher E, Greaves D. 2017. Inflammation—a Critical Appreciation of the Role of Myeloid Cells, p 325-342. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0027-2016
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