Chapter 28 : Role of the Cytoskeleton in Myeloid Cell Function

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The intracellular cytoskeleton, consisting of filamentous actin (F-actin), microtubules (MTs), and intermediate filaments, makes up a network of dynamic polymeric structures that regulate cell shape and function ( ). Chemotaxis and phagocytosis, two essential myeloid cell functions that enable them to defend the host against harmful opportunistic microorganisms, rely heavily on a highly dynamic and multifunctional cytoskeletal network ( ). The importance of the cytoskeleton in myeloid cells is emphasized by human innate immune dysfunction syndromes that arise from defects in cytoskeletal proteins or the proteins that regulate cytoskeletal function ( ). Although most of our knowledge of cytoskeletal structure and function comes from fibroblasts and other cell types, myeloid cells are valuable model systems that have been exploited to study the diverse roles and functions of the cytoskeleton. In this chapter, we will review the current knowledge with respect to cytoskeletal regulation of myeloid cell function, with an emphasis on neutrophils and macrophages.

Citation: Fine N, Khaliq S, Hassanpour S, Glogauer M. 2017. Role of the Cytoskeleton in Myeloid Cell Function, p 527-542. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0029-2016
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Figure 1

The neutrophil F-actin and MT cytoskeletons. Mouse bone marrow neutrophils were plated on ICAM-1 (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1)-coated glass and treated with 1 µM fMLP for 10 min. Cells were fixed with paraformaldehyde and labeled for F-actin (red) and phosphorylated MLC (Thr18/Ser19) (green). An arrow indicates the position of the uropod. Cells were treated as above, fixed with glutaraldehyde as in reference and labeled for MTs (green). Bars, 10 µm.

Citation: Fine N, Khaliq S, Hassanpour S, Glogauer M. 2017. Role of the Cytoskeleton in Myeloid Cell Function, p 527-542. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0029-2016
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Figure 2

The macrophage F-actin and MT cytoskeletons. Colony-stimulating factor-1-cultured mouse bone marrow macrophages were fixed and labeled for F-actin (red) and MTs (green). Bar, 50 µm.

Citation: Fine N, Khaliq S, Hassanpour S, Glogauer M. 2017. Role of the Cytoskeleton in Myeloid Cell Function, p 527-542. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0029-2016
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Figure 3

F-actin localization during Fc-mediated phagocytosis in neutrophils. Mouse bone marrow-derived neutrophils were incubated with IgG-tagged sheep red blood cells (sRBCs) at 37°C. Cells were fixed during phagocytosis, labeled, and visualized by confocal microscopy. F-actin was labeled with FITC-phalloidin and RBCs were labeled with anti-IgG Alexa-568. F-actin concentrates on the site of recognition of the IgG-labeled RBC. It then extends toward the tips of the nascent phagosome, creating protrusions at the site. Consequently, cell membrane is pushed forward and receptor-ligand binding ensures enwrapping of the particle completely. Lastly, the tips of the protrusions fuse due to being pushed into close proximity and the particle is internalized (S. Khaliq, unpublished data).

Citation: Fine N, Khaliq S, Hassanpour S, Glogauer M. 2017. Role of the Cytoskeleton in Myeloid Cell Function, p 527-542. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0029-2016
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