Chapter 39 : Intestinal Mononuclear Phagocytes in Health and Disease

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The intestine constitutes a crucial interface for the acquisition of essential nutrients. In addition, the gut is colonized by a huge and diverse microbiota that confers several benefits to the host, including improved nutrient absorption and protection from pathogenic invasion. Thus, the intestine is the tissue of the body with the highest constitutive exposure to foreign antigen and is also a common entry portal for many local and systemic pathogens. Therefore, the local immune system, known as the gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue, has the unenviable task of balancing efficient responses to dangerous pathogens with tolerance toward beneficial microbiota and food antigens. As in most tissues, the decision between tolerance and immunity is critically governed by the activity of local myeloid cells. However, the unique challenges posed by the intestinal environment have necessitated the development of several specialized myeloid populations with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics that have vital roles in maintaining barrier function and immune homeostasis in the intestine.

Citation: Sanders T, Yrlid U, Maloy K. 2017. Intestinal Mononuclear Phagocytes in Health and Disease, p 687-700. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0047-2016
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Figure 1

Major subsets of murine mononuclear phagocytes. In the steady-state intestine, resident Mɸ and migratory DCs act synergistically to maintain homeostasis and prevent inflammation. In response to infectious or inflammatory insults, recruited Ly6C monocytes and migratory DCs exhibit a proinflammatory phenotype that coordinates protective innate and adaptive immune responses. However, sustained activation of mononuclear phagocytes can drive chronic intestinal inflammation, leading to tissue damage and impaired function. CTL, cytotoxic T lymphocyte; NO, nitric oxide.

Citation: Sanders T, Yrlid U, Maloy K. 2017. Intestinal Mononuclear Phagocytes in Health and Disease, p 687-700. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0047-2016
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