Chapter 6 : Monocyte, Macrophage, and Dendritic Cell Development: the Human Perspective

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Monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) are populations of myeloid mononuclear cells (MMCs) that provide critical sensing functions in innate immunity and a bridge to adaptive immunity through antigen presentation. They also perform important effector functions and contribute to chronic inflammation and healing. Collectively they have been described as the “mononuclear phagocyte system” (MPS) ( ). As originally conceived, the MPS had a single blood-borne precursor, the monocyte. It is now appreciated that the development and homeostasis of MMCs is considerably more complex. In this chapter, we discuss the ontogeny of these diverse cells and reflect on ways in which ontogeny is linked to functional specialization, plasticity, and immune regulation.

Citation: Collin M, Bigley V. 2017. Monocyte, Macrophage, and Dendritic Cell Development: the Human Perspective, p 79-97. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0015-2015
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Figure 1

Steady-state MMC homeostasis. (A) Classical mononuclear phagocyte model showing the development of LCs, DCs, and macrophages from a common monocyte precursor. (B) Current model of DC, monocyte, and macrophage development in which DCs develop through a discrete hematopoietic lineage arising from a bone marrow-resident restricted DC precursor, the CDP. CDPs give rise to pDCs and a myeloid pre-DC population that differentiates into two myeloid DCs (cDC1 and cDC2). It is not known if the pre-DC or cDC1 and cDC2 circulating in the blood give rise to tissue populations of cDC1 and cDC2. Monocytes also contribute to steady-state populations of monocyte-derived macrophages and DCs especially in the skin, gut, and lung. These can be clearly distinguished from the CDP-derived DCs and resident macrophages. Resident macrophages are originally derived from prenatal hematopoiesis. It is unknown whether monocyte-derived cells can contribute to long-term resident macrophages. cMoP, common monocyte progenitor; MAC, macrophage; mo, monocyte.

Citation: Collin M, Bigley V. 2017. Monocyte, Macrophage, and Dendritic Cell Development: the Human Perspective, p 79-97. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0015-2015
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Figure 2

Human blood monocytes and DCs. Gating strategy to identify human monocytes and DCs in peripheral blood. Monocytes and DCs are all found in the HLA-DR, lineage-negative compartment. CD14 versus CD16 displays monocyte subsets and double-negative DC populations. These may be separated in a variety of ways. Here the markers CD123 and CD11c are used to define pDCs and myeloid DCs. The latter can be separated into cDC1 and cDC2 using CD141 and CD1c, respectively.

Citation: Collin M, Bigley V. 2017. Monocyte, Macrophage, and Dendritic Cell Development: the Human Perspective, p 79-97. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0015-2015
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Figure 3

Summary of human DC, monocyte, and macrophage origins in relation to steady-state surface markers. The most distinctive DC phenotypes are displayed by pDCs and CD141 cDC1 cells. There is more overlap between cDC2 and monocyte-derived cells that may coexist in tissues. Monocyte-derived macrophages also share many markers with resident histiocytes. The relative size of arrows from the precursor populations indicates the estimated steady-state flux. CMoP, common monocyte progenitor; mac, macrophage; mo, monocyte.

Citation: Collin M, Bigley V. 2017. Monocyte, Macrophage, and Dendritic Cell Development: the Human Perspective, p 79-97. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0015-2015
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Figure 4

Revised structure of human hematopoiesis showing common lymphomyeloid origin of MMCs including DCs and monocytes. Color coding of progenitor populations is according to their expression of CD38 and CD45RA (inset). B/NK, B- and NK-cell progenitor; EMP, erythromyeloid progenitor; EoBa, eosinophil-basophil progenitor; ETP, early thymic progenitor; GM(D)P, granulocyte-monocyte (DC) progenitor; MEP, mega-erythroid progenitor; MLP, multi-lymphoid progenitor; MDP, monocyte-DC progenitor.

Citation: Collin M, Bigley V. 2017. Monocyte, Macrophage, and Dendritic Cell Development: the Human Perspective, p 79-97. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0015-2015
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