Chapter 1 : Genome Diversity of Spore-Forming

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The taxonomy of spore-forming Gram-positive bacteria has a long and colorful history. In 1872, 35 years after Christian Ehrenberg provided the initial description of (and also ), Ferdinand Cohn assigned it to the genus and family , specifically noting the existence of heat-sensitive vegetative cells and heat-resistant endospores (see reference ). Soon after that, Robert Koch identified as the causative agent of anthrax in cattle and the endospores as a means of the propagation of this organism among its hosts. In subsequent studies, the ability to form endospores, the specific purple staining by crystal violet-iodine (Gram-positive staining, reflecting the presence of a thick peptidoglycan layer and the absence of an outer membrane), and the relatively low (typically less than 50%) molar fraction of guanine and cytosine in the genomic DNA have been used as diagnostic characteristics of the phylum (low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria).

Citation: Galperin M. 2016. Genome Diversity of Spore-Forming , p 3-19. In Driks A, Eichenberger P (ed), The Bacterial Spore: from Molecules to Systems. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBS-0015-2012
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Table 1

Principal data sources on bacterial () taxonomy

Citation: Galperin M. 2016. Genome Diversity of Spore-Forming , p 3-19. In Driks A, Eichenberger P (ed), The Bacterial Spore: from Molecules to Systems. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBS-0015-2012
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Table 2

Distribution of spore-forming bacteria among

Citation: Galperin M. 2016. Genome Diversity of Spore-Forming , p 3-19. In Driks A, Eichenberger P (ed), The Bacterial Spore: from Molecules to Systems. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBS-0015-2012
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Table 3

Recent renaming of some well-known sporeformers

Citation: Galperin M. 2016. Genome Diversity of Spore-Forming , p 3-19. In Driks A, Eichenberger P (ed), The Bacterial Spore: from Molecules to Systems. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBS-0015-2012
Generic image for table
Table 4

Genome sequencing of extremophilic sporeformers

Citation: Galperin M. 2016. Genome Diversity of Spore-Forming , p 3-19. In Driks A, Eichenberger P (ed), The Bacterial Spore: from Molecules to Systems. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBS-0015-2012
Generic image for table
Table 5

Distribution of sporulation genes in some non-spore-forming bacteria

Citation: Galperin M. 2016. Genome Diversity of Spore-Forming , p 3-19. In Driks A, Eichenberger P (ed), The Bacterial Spore: from Molecules to Systems. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBS-0015-2012

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