Chapter 1 : Introduction

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Introduction, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819439/9781555819422.ch1-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819439/9781555819422.ch1-2.gif


Clinical virology incorporates a spectrum of disciplines and information ranging from the x-ray crystallographic structure of viral proteins to the global socioeconomic impact of disease. Clinical virology is the domain of molecular biologists, geneticists, pharmacologists, microbiologists, vaccinologists, immunologists, practitioners of public health, epidemiologists, and clinicians, including both pediatric and adult health care providers. It encompasses events impacting history that range from pandemics and Jennerian vaccination to the identification of new pathogens, mechanisms of disease, and modern countermeasures like antiretrovirals. For example, since the previous edition of this text, sequencing techniques from human specimens have led to the identification of numerous new members of several virus families, including polyomaviruses, orthomyxoviruses, and bunyaviruses (1–3). New viral pathogens have emerged or been recognized, including a camel-associated coronavirus causing the SARS-like Middle East respiratory syndrome, the tick-borne zoonotic orthomyxovirus (Bourbon virus) (2), the bunyaviruses (severe fever with thrombocytopenia virus) (3) and Heartland virus (4, 5), and newly emerged avian and swine influenza viruses causing zoonotic infections (H7N9, H5N6, H6N1, H10N8, H3N2v) (6–10). A bornavirus, belonging to a virus family known to cause disease in animals but with an unproven role in human disease, has been isolated in a cluster of encephalitis cases (11). Well-recognized pathogens like Chikungunya and Zika viruses have spread geographically to cause major outbreaks in the Western Hemisphere (12, 13). The political and social consequences of vaccine denialism have delayed the eradication of polio and measles globally and resulted in re-emerging outbreaks of measles in Europe and North America. Most dramatically, the pattern of relatively limited, albeit lethal, outbreaks of Ebola virus in central Africa over the past 40 years changed in 2014 with the West African outbreak that caused over 28,000 infections leading to over 11,000 fatalities, including more than 500 health care workers, before coming under apparent control in 2016 (http://www.who.int/csr/disease/ebola/en/).

Citation: Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F. 2017. Introduction, p 1-5. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch1
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Ho J, Jedrych JJ, Feng H, Natalie AA, Grandinetti L, Mirvish E, Crespo MM, Yadav D, Fasanella KE, Proksell S, Kuan SF, Pastrana DV, Buck CB, Shuda Y, Moore PS, Chang Y . 2015. Human polyomavirus 7-associated pruritic rash and viremia in transplant recipients. J Infect Dis 211 : 1560 1565.[PubMed]
2. Kosoy OI, Lambert AJ, Hawkinson DJ, Pastula DM, Goldsmith CS, Hunt DC, Staples JE . 2015. Novel thogotovirus associated with febrile illness and death, United States, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis 21 : 760 764.[PubMed]
3. Yu XJ, Liang MF, Zhang SY, Liu Y, Li JD, Sun YL, Zhang L, Zhang QF, Popov VL, Li C, Qu J, Li Q, Zhang YP, Hai R, Wu W, Wang Q, Zhan FX, Wang XJ, Kan B, Wang SW, Wan KL, Jing HQ, Lu JX, Yin WW, Zhou H, Guan XH, Liu JF, Bi ZQ, Liu GH, Ren J, Wang H, Zhao Z, Song JD, He JR, Wan T, Zhang JS, Fu XP, Sun LN, Dong XP, Feng ZJ, Yang WZ, Hong T, Zhang Y, Walker DH, Wang Y, Li DX . 2011. Fever with thrombocytopenia associated with a novel bunyavirus in China. N Engl J Med 364 : 1523 1532.[PubMed]
4. McMullan LK, Folk SM, Kelly AJ, MacNeil A, Goldsmith CS, Metcalfe MG, Batten BC, Albariño CG, Zaki SR, Rollin PE, Nicholson WL, Nichol ST . 2012. A new phlebovirus associated with severe febrile illness in Missouri. N Engl J Med 367 : 834 841.[PubMed]
5. Muehlenbachs A, Fata CR, Lambert AJ, Paddock CD, Velez JO, Blau DM, Staples JE, Karlekar MB, Bhatnagar J, Nasci RS, Zaki SR . 2014. Heartland virus-associated death in Tennessee. Clin Infect Dis 59 : 845 850.[PubMed]
6. Gao HN, Lu HZ, Cao B, Du B, Shang H, Gan JH, Lu SH, Yang YD, Fang Q, Shen YZ, Xi XM, Gu Q, Zhou XM, Qu HP, Yan Z, Li FM, Zhao W, Gao ZC, Wang GF, Ruan LX, Wang WH, Ye J, Cao HF, Li XW, Zhang WH, Fang XC, He J, Liang WF, Xie J, Zeng M, Wu XZ, Li J, Xia Q, Jin ZC, Chen Q, Tang C, Zhang ZY, Hou BM, Feng ZX, Sheng JF, Zhong NS, Li LJ . 2013. Clinical findings in 111 cases of influenza A (H7N9) virus infection. N Engl J Med 368 : 2277 2285.[PubMed]
7. Li Q, Zhou L, Zhou M, Chen Z, Li F, Wu H, Xiang N, Chen E, Tang F, Wang D, Meng L, Hong Z, Tu W, Cao Y, Li L, Ding F, Liu B, Wang M, Xie R, Gao R, Li X, Bai T, Zou S, He J, Hu J, Xu Y, Chai C, Wang S, Gao Y, Jin L, Zhang Y, Luo H, Yu H, He J, Li Q, Wang X, Gao L, Pang X, Liu G, Yan Y, Yuan H, Shu Y, Yang W, Wang Y, Wu F, Uyeki TM, Feng Z . 2014. Epidemiology of human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China. N Engl J Med 370 : 520 532.[PubMed]
8. Wei SH, Yang JR, Wu HS, Chang MC, Lin JS, Lin CY, Liu YL, Lo YC, Yang CH, Chuang JH, Lin MC, Chung WC, Liao CH, Lee MS, Huang WT, Chen PJ, Liu MT, Chang FY . 2013. Human infection with avian influenza A H6N1 virus: an epidemiological analysis. Lancet Respir Med 1 : 771 778.[PubMed]
9. Chen H, Yuan H, Gao R, Zhang J, Wang D, Xiong Y, Fan G, Yang F, Li X, Zhou J, Zou S, Yang L, Chen T, Dong L, Bo H, Zhao X, Zhang Y, Lan Y, Bai T, Dong J, Li Q, Wang S, Zhang Y, Li H, Gong T, Shi Y, Ni X, Li J, Zhou J, Fan J, Wu J, Zhou X, Hu M, Wan J, Yang W, Li D, Wu G, Feng Z, Gao GF, Wang Y, Jin Q, Liu M, Shu Y . 2014. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a fatal case of avian influenza A H10N8 virus infection: a descriptive study. Lancet 383 : 714 721.[PubMed]
10. Bowman AS, Sreevatsan S, Killian ML, Page SL, Nelson SW, Nolting JM, Cardona C, Slemons RD . 2012. Molecular evidence for interspecies transmission of H3N2pM/H3N2v influenza A viruses at an Ohio agricultural fair, July 2012. Emerg Microbes Infect 1 : e33.[PubMed]
11. Hoffmann B, Tappe D, Höper D, Herden C, Boldt A, Mawrin C, Niederstraßer O, Müller T, Jenckel M, van der Grinten E, Lutter C, Abendroth B, Teifke JP, Cadar D, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Ulrich RG, Beer M . 2015. A variegated squirrel bornavirus associated with fatal human encephalitis. N Engl J Med 373 : 154 162.[PubMed]
12. Nasci RS . 2014. Movement of chikungunya virus into the Western hemisphere. Emerg Infect Dis 20 : 1394 1395.[PubMed]
13. Fauci AS, Morens DM . 2016. Zika virus in the Americas—yet another arbovirus threat. N Engl J Med 374 : 601 604.[PubMed]
14. Xu GJ, Kula T, Xu Q, Li MZ, Vernon SD, Ndung'u T, Ruxrungtham K, Sanchez J, Brander C, Chung RT, O'Connor KC, Walker B, Larman HB, Elledge SJ . 2015. Viral immunology. Comprehensive serological profiling of human populations using a synthetic human virome. Science 348 : aaa0698.[PubMed]
15. Delwart E . 2013. A roadmap to the human virome. PLoS Pathog 9 : e1003146.[PubMed]
16. Minot S, Bryson A, Chehoud C, Wu GD, Lewis JD, Bushman FD . 2013. Rapid evolution of the human gut virome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110 : 12450 12455.[PubMed]
17. Gaston DC, Whitley RJ, Parker JN . 2011. Engineered herpes simplex virus vectors for antitumor therapy and vaccine delivery. Future Virol 6 : 321 340.
18. Markert JM, Razdan SN, Kuo HC, Cantor A, Knoll A, Karrasch M, Nabors LB, Markiewicz M, Agee BS, Coleman JM, Lakeman AD, Palmer CA, Parker JN, Whitley RJ, Weichselbaum RR, Fiveash JB, Gillespie GY . 2014. A phase 1 trial of oncolytic HSV-1, G207, given in combination with radiation for recurrent GBM demonstrates safety and radiographic responses. Mol Ther 22 : 1048 1055.[PubMed]
19. Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses: Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. ( 2012) Ed: King A.M.Q., Adams M.J., Carstens E.B., and Lefkowitz E.J. San Diego: http://www.elsevierdirect.com/product.jsp?isbn=9780123846846 Elsevier Academic Press.


Generic image for table

Taxonomy of human viruses

Citation: Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F. 2017. Introduction, p 1-5. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch1

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error