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Chapter 20 : Herpes Simplex Viruses

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Abstract:

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of humans have been documented since the advent of writing. Genital herpes was described in Sumerian literature (1). Greek scholars, particularly Hippocrates, used the word “herpes,” meaning to creep or crawl, to describe the spreading nature of skin lesions (2). Herodotus associated mouth ulcers and lip vesicles with fever and called it “herpes febrilis.” Many of these original observations likely emanated from Galen's deduction that the appearance of lesions was an attempt by the body to rid itself of evil humors, leading to the description “herpes excretins.”

Citation: Whitley R, Roizman B. 2017. Herpes Simplex Viruses, p 415-445. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch20
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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Schematic representation of the replication of herpes simplex viruses (HSV) in susceptible cells. 1. The virus initiates infection by the fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane following attachment to the cell surface. 2. Fusion of the membranes releases two proteins from the virion. Virus host shutoff (VHS) shuts off protein synthesis (broken RNA in open polyribosomes). The α gene trans-inducing factor (α-TIF) is transported to the nucleus. 3. The capsid is transported to the nuclear pore where viral DNA is released into the nucleus and immediately circularizes. 4. The transcription of α genes by cellular enzymes is induced by α-TIF. 5. The 5 αmRNAs are transported into the cytoplasm and translated (filled polyribosome); the proteins are transported into the nucleus. 6. A new round of transcription results in the synthesis of ß proteins. 7. At this stage in the infection the chromatin (c) is degraded and displaced toward the nuclear membrane, whereas the nucleoli (round hatched structures) become disaggregated. 8. Viral DNA is replicated by a rolling circle mechanism, which yields head-to-tail concatemers of unit length viral DNA. 9. A new round of transcription/translation yields the γ proteins consisting primarily of structural proteins of the virus. 10. The capsid proteins form empty capsids. 11. Unit-length viral DNA is cleaved from concatemers and packaged into the preformed capsids. 12. Capsids containing viral DNA acquire a new protein. 13. Viral glycoproteins and tegument proteins accumulate and form patches in cellular membranes. The capsids containing DNA and the additional protein attach to the underside of the membrane patches containing viral proteins and are enveloped. 14. The enveloped proteins accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum and are transported into the extracellular space. Reprinted with permission from ( ).

Citation: Whitley R, Roizman B. 2017. Herpes Simplex Viruses, p 415-445. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch20
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) by age.

Citation: Whitley R, Roizman B. 2017. Herpes Simplex Viruses, p 415-445. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch20
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) by selected country.

Citation: Whitley R, Roizman B. 2017. Herpes Simplex Viruses, p 415-445. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch20
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) as a function of the number of sexual partners.

Citation: Whitley R, Roizman B. 2017. Herpes Simplex Viruses, p 415-445. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch20
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Histopathology of herpes simplex virus infection.

Citation: Whitley R, Roizman B. 2017. Herpes Simplex Viruses, p 415-445. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch20
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Schematic diagram of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection.

Citation: Whitley R, Roizman B. 2017. Herpes Simplex Viruses, p 415-445. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch20
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Schematic diagram of latency and reactivation.

Citation: Whitley R, Roizman B. 2017. Herpes Simplex Viruses, p 415-445. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch20
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Sites of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection and disease.

Citation: Whitley R, Roizman B. 2017. Herpes Simplex Viruses, p 415-445. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch20
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Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

Herpes simplex gingivostomatitis.

Citation: Whitley R, Roizman B. 2017. Herpes Simplex Viruses, p 415-445. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch20
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FIGURE 10

Recurrent herpes simplex labialis.

Citation: Whitley R, Roizman B. 2017. Herpes Simplex Viruses, p 415-445. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch20
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FIGURE 11

Genital herpes simplex virus infection (female).

Citation: Whitley R, Roizman B. 2017. Herpes Simplex Viruses, p 415-445. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch20
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FIGURE 12

Genital herpes simplex virus infection (male).

Citation: Whitley R, Roizman B. 2017. Herpes Simplex Viruses, p 415-445. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch20
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Image of FIGURE 13
FIGURE 13

Vesicular rash of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.

Citation: Whitley R, Roizman B. 2017. Herpes Simplex Viruses, p 415-445. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch20
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Image of FIGURE 14
FIGURE 14

Cutaneous dissemination of herpes simplex virus infection in an immunosuppressed host.

Citation: Whitley R, Roizman B. 2017. Herpes Simplex Viruses, p 415-445. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch20
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Image of FIGURE 15
FIGURE 15

Coronal section of brain from patient with herpes simplex encephalitis.

Citation: Whitley R, Roizman B. 2017. Herpes Simplex Viruses, p 415-445. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch20
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