Chapter 28 : Polyomaviruses

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Polyomavirus infections are widespread among humans and animals. The prototype of this viral family, polyoma virus of mice, was discovered in 1953 as an agent capable of producing tumors in its natural host (1). A second polyomavirus, murine K virus (KV; now known as mouse pneumotropic virus or MPtV), was discovered in 1952 (2). The simian polyomavirus, SV40, was discovered in 1960 as a contaminant of lots of rhesus monkey kidney cells used to prepare polio vaccine stocks (3). Infectious SV40, subsequently detected in both the Salk and Sabin polio vaccines, as well as in adenovirus vaccines, was inadvertently administered to millions of individuals worldwide (3).

Citation: Greenlee J, Hirsch H. 2017. Polyomaviruses, p 599-623. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 1

Electron micrograph of BKPyV extracted from human fetal kidney cells, concentrated by ultracentrifugation, and stained with 2% phosphotungstic acid, showing characteristic 42 nm particles.

Citation: Greenlee J, Hirsch H. 2017. Polyomaviruses, p 599-623. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 2

Schematic representation of a human polyomavirus genome, made up of circular double-stranded DNA. Regions comprising the NCCR are shown in blue; those comprising the EVGR are shown in red: these encode LTag, truncT’ as found in MCPyV, and sTag. LVGR sequences encoding VP1, VP2, VP3, and the agno protein are shown in red. The agno protein-encoding gene is not found in every HPyV genome.

Citation: Greenlee J, Hirsch H. 2017. Polyomaviruses, p 599-623. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 3

(A) Identification of SV40 T-Ag by immunofluorescence in transformed simian TC-7 kidney cells. Cells were grown in a monolayer and reacted with monoclonal antibodies PAb 416, PAb 108, and PAb 101 directed against T-Ag as described by O'Neill et al. ( ). (B) Naïve TC-7 cells (not containing T-Ag-encoding DNA sequences) reacted with monoclonal antibodies as in panel A (negative control).

Citation: Greenlee J, Hirsch H. 2017. Polyomaviruses, p 599-623. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 4

Western blot of SV40 T-Ag and p53 from transformed human cells. SV40 T-Ag was immunoprecipitated in even-numbered lanes and p53 was immunoprecipitated in odd-numbered lanes, and the immunoprecipitates were subjected to electrophoresis in agarose gels and analyzed by Western blotting using a cocktail of antibodies to T-Ag or p53 ( ). The illustration shows that immunoprecipitation of either protein results in coprecipitation of the second protein.

Citation: Greenlee J, Hirsch H. 2017. Polyomaviruses, p 599-623. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 5

Comparative cytopathic effects produced by JCPyV, BKPyV, and SV40 in primary cultures of human fetal brain cells. Cultures were infected with a 1/10 dilution of the PML-associated Mad-1 genotype of JCPyV or with 1/1,000 dilutions of SV40 or BKPyV. (A) Uninfected human fetal brain cells containing relatively small, moderately stained nuclei. (B) Cultures infected with a 1/10 dilution of the PML-associated Mad-1 strain of JCPyV, showing cells with enlarged nuclei and multinucleated cells. Occasional giant multinucleated cells were present in some cultures (not shown). (C) Cultures infected with a 1/1,000 dilution of SV40. Cultures show large, darkly staining nuclei. Some nuclei were reticulated or mottled (double arrows), but multinucleated cells were rare. Arrowheads in panels B and C designate cells with small nuclei, similar to those seen in uninfected cultures. (D) Cultures infected with a 1/1,000 dilution of BKPyV, showing enlarged, intensely stained nuclei. Some nuclei contained what appeared to be doughnut-shaped nucleoli (arrows). This was unique to BKPyV infection. As in SV40-infected cultures, multinucleated cells were rarely present. In cultures infected with BKPyV or SV40, cytopathic effect became extensive within 8 to 10 days. In cells infected with Mad-1 JCPyV, cytopathic effect did not appear until 3 to 4 weeks. (Wright's stain; magnification, ×152).

Citation: Greenlee J, Hirsch H. 2017. Polyomaviruses, p 599-623. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 6

Polyomavirus persistence as a chronic productive infection, as shown in a kidney of a nonimmunosuppressed mouse 6 months after inoculation with murine pneumotropic (K) virus. Arrows indicate the presence of viral nucleic acids (A), T-Ag (B), and VP1 antigen (C) indicative of viral replication in renal tubular epithelial cells.

Citation: Greenlee J, Hirsch H. 2017. Polyomaviruses, p 599-623. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 7

Section from edge of a PML lesion, stained for polyomavirus common structural antigen, and labeled using immunoperoxidase techniques. There is extensive loss of myelin. Oligodendrocytes have enlarged nuclei that exhibit intense immunostaining indicating productive infection (arrows). Giant astrocytes within the lesion remain unlabeled. Magnification, ×216.

Citation: Greenlee J, Hirsch H. 2017. Polyomaviruses, p 599-623. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 8

Section of PML-affected brain probed for JCPyV nucleic acids using hybridization methods. Large numbers of exposed emulsion grains, indicative of specific hybridization, overlie nuclei of infected oligodendrocytes. Smaller numbers of exposed emulsion grains overlie atypical astrocytes, again indicating presence of viral nucleic acids. Magnification, ×400.

Citation: Greenlee J, Hirsch H. 2017. Polyomaviruses, p 599-623. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 9

Urine and allograft-biopsy specimens from a patient with BKPyV-associated nephropathy. (A) Urine cytology showing “decoy cells” with their characteristic ground-glass, intranuclear viral inclusion bodies (arrows) (Papanicolaou stain, ×400). (B) Allograft-biopsy showing renal tubules with epithelial cells containing viral inclusions, nuclear enlargement, and detachment of infected cells from the tubular basement membrane, leading to its denudation (arrows) (hematoxylin and eosin, ×160). Adapted from reference with the permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Greenlee J, Hirsch H. 2017. Polyomaviruses, p 599-623. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 10

Histological patterns of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) in kidney transplant biopsies. (A) BKPyV nephropathy pattern A consisting of focal viral cytopathic changes with little inflammation or tubular atrophy of a patient with a BKPyV archetype NCCR in plasma. Hematoxylin/eosin stain of a representative histological field and immunohistochemistry of LTag expression using the cross-reacting monoclonal anti-SV40 T-antigen Ab-2 and peroxidase-conjugated anti-mouse IgG. Enlargement of the indicated area is shown. (B) BKPyV nephropathy pattern A consisting of extensive viral cytopathic changes and inflammatory infiltrates of patient carrying BKPyV rearranged (rr-)NCCR variant in plasma. Hematoxylin/eosin stain of a representative histological field and immunohistochemistry of LTag expression using the cross-reacting monoclonal anti-SV40 T-antigen Ab-2 and peroxidase conjugated anti-mouse. Bars: (A and B) 200 μm; (A and B, insets) 100 μm. Reprinted from Gosert R, Rinaldo CH, Funk GA, Egli A, Ramos E, Drachenberg CB Hirsch HH. 2008. Polyomavirus BK with rearranged noncoding control region emerge in vivo in renal transplant patients and increase viral replication and cytopathology. 841–852 with the permission of the author and publisher.

Citation: Greenlee J, Hirsch H. 2017. Polyomaviruses, p 599-623. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 11

Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) weighted magnetic resonance image of a patient developing PML in the setting of AIDS. Multifocal areas of demyelination are seen as areas of increased signal, appearing white against the darker background.

Citation: Greenlee J, Hirsch H. 2017. Polyomaviruses, p 599-623. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch28
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