Chapter 39 : Mumps Virus

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Mumps Virus, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819439/9781555819422.ch39-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819439/9781555819422.ch39-2.gif


Mumps virus, a member of the paramyxovirus family, causes a distinctive and generally benign systemic infection that is clinically characterized by fever and parotitis. In older literature, mumps was often termed “epidemic parotitis.” Historically, mumps occurred commonly among school-aged children but dramatically declined following the introduction of routine vaccination. Significant mumps outbreaks continue to occur, however, among previously infected or vaccinated individuals for reasons that are not fully understood. These cases of reinfection or vaccine failure can sometimes be difficult to diagnose due to mild clinical presentations and can be difficult to confirm due to limitations of current laboratory testing.

Citation: Gnann J, Latner D. 2017. Mumps Virus, p 929-948. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch39
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Structure of the mumps virion. Molecular weights of viral proteins as measured by gel electrophoresis are shown in parentheses. Data from Galinski and Wechsler ( ).

Citation: Gnann J, Latner D. 2017. Mumps Virus, p 929-948. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch39
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Genome organization of mumps virus. Number of nucleotides in messenger mRNA: and Protein: Amino acid residues in corresponding protein. Data from Pringle ( ).

Citation: Gnann J, Latner D. 2017. Mumps Virus, p 929-948. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch39
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3

Replication strategy of mumps virus.

Citation: Gnann J, Latner D. 2017. Mumps Virus, p 929-948. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch39
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4

Cytopathic effect of mumps virus replication in tissue culture. Cell-to-cell fusion in Vero cells during the course of infection with mumps virus (10x magnification). (A) uninfected, and 48 hours post infection (m.o.i. = 0.01) with (B) Jeryl Lynn strain, and (C) wild-type virus (genotype G).

Citation: Gnann J, Latner D. 2017. Mumps Virus, p 929-948. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch39
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5

Child with mumps displaying diffuse lymphedema of the neck due to parotitis. (Image courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library.)

Citation: Gnann J, Latner D. 2017. Mumps Virus, p 929-948. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch39
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Server AC, Merz DC, Waxham MN, Wolinsky JS . 1982. Differentiation of mumps virus strains with monoclonal antibody to the HN glycoprotein. Infect Immun 35 : 179 186.[PubMed]
2. Rubin S, Mauldin J, Chumakov K, Vanderzanden J, Iskow R, Carbone K . 2006. Serological and phylogenetic evidence of monotypic immune responses to different mumps virus strains. Vaccine 24 : 2662 2668.[PubMed]
3. Šantak M, Örvell C, Gulija TK . 2015. Identification of conformational neutralization sites on the fusion protein of mumps virus. J Gen Virol 96 : 982 990.[PubMed]
4. Orvell C . 1984. The reactions of monoclonal antibodies with structural proteins of mumps virus. J Immunol 132 : 2622 2629.[PubMed]
5. Horne RW, Waterson AP, Wildy P, Farnham AE . 1960. The structure and composition of the myxoviruses. I. Electron microscope studies of the structure of myxovirus particles by negative staining techniques. Virology 11 : 79 98.[PubMed]
6. Duc-Nguyen H, Rosenblum EN . 1967. Immuno-electron microscopy of the morphogenesis of mumps virus. J Virol 1 : 415 429.[PubMed]
7. McCarthy M, Johnson RT . 1980. Morphological heterogeneity in relation to structural and functional properties of mumps virus. J Gen Virol 48 : 395 399.[PubMed]
8. McCarthy M, Lazzarini RA . 1982. Intracellular nucleocapsid RNA of mumps virus. J Gen Virol 58 : 205 209.[PubMed]
9. Harrison MS, Sakaguchi T, Schmitt AP . 2010. Paramyxovirus assembly and budding: building particles that transmit infections. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 42 : 1416 1429.[PubMed]
10. Kolakofsky D, Roux L, Garcin D, Ruigrok RW . 2005. Paramyxovirus mRNA editing, the “rule of six” and error catastrophe: a hypothesis. J Gen Virol 86 : 1869 1877.[PubMed]
11. Sauder CJ, Ngo L, Simonyan V, Cong Y, Zhang C, Link M, Malik T, Rubin SA. 2015. Generation and propagation of recombinant mumps viruses exhibiting an additional U residue in the homopolymeric U tract of the F gene-end signal. Virus Genes 51: 12 24.
12. Noton SL, Fearns R . 2015. Initiation and regulation of paramyxovirus transcription and replication. Virology 479–480 : 545 554.[PubMed]
13. Elango N, Varsanyi TM, Kövamees J, Norrby E . 1988. Molecular cloning and characterization of six genes, determination of gene order and intergenic sequences and leader sequence of mumps virus. J Gen Virol 69 : 2893 2900.[PubMed]
14. Okazaki K, Tanabayashi K, Takeuchi K, Hishiyama M, Okazaki K, Yamada A . 1992. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the mumps virus gene encoding the L protein and the trailer sequence. Virology 188 : 926 930.[PubMed]
15. Jacques JP, Hausmann S, Kolakofsky D . 1994. Paramyxovirus mRNA editing leads to G deletions as well as insertions. EMBO J 13 : 5496 5503.[PubMed]
16. Paterson RG, Lamb RA . 1990. RNA editing by G-nucleotide insertion in mumps virus P-gene mRNA transcripts. J Virol 64 : 4137 4145.[PubMed]
17. Elliott GD, Yeo RP, Afzal MA, Simpson EJ, Curran JA, Rima BK . 1990. Strain-variable editing during transcription of the P gene of mumps virus may lead to the generation of non-structural proteins NS1 (V) and NS2. J Gen Virol 71 : 1555 1560.[PubMed]
18. Jin L, Orvell C, Myers R, Rota PA, Nakayama T, Forcic D, Hiebert J, Brown KE . 2014. Genomic diversity of mumps virus and global distribution of the 12 genotypes. Rev Med Virol 10.1002/rmv.1819.[PubMed]
19. Cox R, Green TJ, Qiu S, Kang J, Tsao J, Prevelige PE, He B, Luo M . 2009. Characterization of a mumps virus nucleocapsidlike particle. J Virol 83 : 11402 11406.[PubMed]
20. Cox R, Pickar A, Qiu S, Tsao J, Rodenburg C, Dokland T, Elson A, He B, Luo M . 2014. Structural studies on the authentic mumps virus nucleocapsid showing uncoiling by the phosphoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111 : 15208 15213.[PubMed]
21. Zengel J, Pickar A, Xu P, Lin A, He B . 2015. Roles of phosphorylation of the nucleocapsid protein of mumps virus in regulating viral RNA transcription and replication. J Virol 89 : 7338 7347.[PubMed]
22. Ortín J, Martín-Benito J . 2015. The RNA synthesis machinery of negative-stranded RNA viruses. Virology 479–480 : 532 544.[PubMed]
23. Compans RW, Mountcastle WE, Choppin PW . 1972. The sense of the helix of paramyxovirus nucleocapsids. J Mol Biol 65 : 167 169.[PubMed]
24. Cox R, Plemper RK . 2015. The paramyxovirus polymerase complex as a target for next-generation anti-paramyxovirus therapeutics. Front Microbiol 6 : 459.[PubMed]
25. Dochow M, Krumm SA, Crowe JE Jr, Moore ML, Plemper RK . 2012. Independent structural domains in paramyxovirus polymerase protein. J Biol Chem 287 : 6878 6891.[PubMed]
26. Cox R, Green TJ, Purushotham S, Deivanayagam C, Bedwell GJ, Prevelige PE, Luo M . 2013. Structural and functional characterization of the mumps virus phosphoprotein. J Virol 87 : 7558 7568.[PubMed]
27. Pickar A, Xu P, Elson A, Li Z, Zengel J, He B . 2014. Roles of serine and threonine residues of mumps virus P protein in viral transcription and replication. J Virol 88 : 4414 4422.[PubMed]
28. Lenard J . 1999. Host cell protein kinases in nonsegmented negative-strand virus (mononegavirales) infection. Pharmacol Ther 83 : 39 48.[PubMed]
29. Fuentes SM, Sun D, Schmitt AP, He B . 2010. Phosphorylation of paramyxovirus phosphoprotein and its role in viral gene expression. Future Microbiol 5 : 9 13.[PubMed]
30. Bose S, Jardetzky TS, Lamb RA . 2015. Timing is everything: fine-tuned molecular machines orchestrate paramyxovirus entry. Virology 479–480C : 518 531.
31. Chang A, Dutch RE . 2012. Paramyxovirus fusion and entry: multiple paths to a common end. Viruses 4 : 613 636.[PubMed]
32. El Najjar F, Schmitt AP, Dutch RE . 2014. Paramyxovirus glycoprotein incorporation, assembly and budding: a three way dance for infectious particle production. Viruses 6 : 3019 3054.[PubMed]
33. Herrler G, Compans RW . 1983. Posttranslational modification and intracellular transport of mumps virus glycoproteins. J Virol 47 : 354 362.[PubMed]
34. Waxham MN, Merz DC, Wolinsky JS . 1986. Intracellular maturation of mumps virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein: conformational changes detected with monoclonal antibodies. J Virol 59 : 392 400.[PubMed]
35. Waxham MN, Aronowski J, Server AC, Wolinsky JS, Smith JA, Goodman HM . 1988. Sequence determination of the mumps virus HN gene. Virology 164 : 318 325.[PubMed]
36. Plattet P, Plemper RK . 2013. Envelope protein dynamics in paramyxovirus entry. MBio 4 ( 4 ): pii: e00413-13.[PubMed]
37. Villar E, Barroso IM . 2006. Role of sialic acid–containing molecules in paramyxovirus entry into the host cell: a minireview. Glycoconj J 23 : 5 17.[PubMed]
38. Levens JH, Enders JF . 1945. The hemoagglutinative properties of amniotic fluid from embryonated eggs infected with mumps virus. Science 102 : 117 120.[PubMed]
39. Waxham MN, Aronowski J . 1988. Identification of amino acids involved in the sialidase activity of the mumps virus hemagglutinin-neuraminadase protein. Virology 167 : 226 232.[PubMed]
40. Liu Y, Xu Y, Lou Z, Zhu J, Hu X, Gao GF, Qiu B, Rao Z, Tien P . 2006. Structural characterization of mumps virus fusion protein core. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 348 : 916 922.[PubMed]
41. Liu Y, Xu Y, Zhu J, Qiu B, Rao Z, Gao GF, Tien P . 2005. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of central structure domains from mumps virus F protein. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 61 : 855 857.[PubMed]
42. Liu Y, Zhu J, Feng MG, Tien P, Gao GF . 2004. Six-helix bundle assembly and analysis of the central core of mumps virus fusion protein. Arch Biochem Biophys 421 : 143 148.[PubMed]
43. Rima BK, Roberts MW, McAdam WD, Martin SJ . 1980. Polypeptide synthesis in mumps virus–infected cells. J Gen Virol 46 : 501 505.[PubMed]
44. Merz DC, Server AC, Waxham MN, Wolinsky JS . 1983. Biosynthesis of mumps virus F glycoprotein: non-fusing strains efficiently cleave the F glycoprotein precursor. J Gen Virol 64 : 1457 1467.[PubMed]
45. Bose S, Song AS, Jardetzky TS, Lamb RA . 2014. Fusion activation through attachment protein stalk domains indicates a conserved core mechanism of paramyxovirus entry into cells. J Virol 88 : 3925 3941.[PubMed]
46. Takimoto T, Taylor GL, Connaris HC, Crennell SJ, Portner A . 2002. Role of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein in the mechanism of paramyxovirus-cell membrane fusion. J Virol 76 : 13028 13033.[PubMed]
47. Tanabayashi K, Takeuchi K, Okazaki K, Hishiyama M, Yamada A . 1993. Identification of an amino acid that defines the fusogenicity of mumps virus. J Virol 67 : 2928 2931.[PubMed]
48. Tanabayashi K, Takeuchi K, Okazaki K, Hishiyama M, Yamada A . 1992. Expression of mumps virus glycoproteins in mammalian cells from cloned cDNAs: both F and HN proteins are required for cell fusion. Virology 187 : 801 804.[PubMed]
49. Merz DC, Wolinsky JS . 1981. Biochemical features of mumps virus neuraminidases and their relationship with pathogenicity. Virology 114 : 218 227.[PubMed]
50. Waxham MN, Wolinsky JS . 1986. A fusing mumps virus variant selected from a nonfusing parent with the neuraminidase inhibitor 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid. Virology 151 : 286 295.[PubMed]
51. Li M, Schmitt PT, Li Z, McCrory TS, He B, Schmitt AP . 2009. Mumps virus matrix, fusion, and nucleocapsid proteins cooperate for efficient production of virus-like particles. J Virol 83 : 7261 7272.[PubMed]
52. Pentecost M, Vashisht AA, Lester T, Voros T, Beaty SM, Park A, Wang YE, Yun TE, Freiberg AN, Wohlschlegel JA, Lee B . 2015. Evidence for ubiquitin-regulated nuclear and subnuclear trafficking among Paramyxovirinae matrix proteins. PLoS Pathog 11 : e1004739.[PubMed]
53. Xu P, Chen Z, Phan S, Pickar A, He B, Lyles DS . 2014. Immunogenicity of novel mumps vaccine candidates generated by genetic modification. J Virol 88 : 2600 2610.[PubMed]
54. Parks GD, Alexander-Miller MA . 2013. Paramyxovirus activation and inhibition of innate immune responses. J Mol Biol 425 : 4872 4892.[PubMed]
55. Audsley MD, Moseley GW . 2013. Paramyxovirus evasion of innate immunity: diverse strategies for common targets. World J Virol 2 : 57 70.[PubMed]
56. Puri M, Lemon K, Duprex WP, Rima BK, Horvath CM . 2009. A point mutation, E95D, in the mumps virus V protein disengages STAT3 targeting from STAT1 targeting. J Virol 83 : 6347 6356.[PubMed]
57. Ulane CM, Kentsis A, Cruz CD, Parisien JP, Schneider KL, Horvath CM . 2005. Composition and assembly of STAT-targeting ubiquitin ligase complexes: paramyxovirus V protein carboxyl terminus is an oligomerization domain. J Virol 79 : 10180 10189.[PubMed]
58. Ulane CM, Rodriguez JJ, Parisien JP, Horvath CM . 2003. STAT3 ubiquitylation and degradation by mumps virus suppress cytokine and oncogene signaling. J Virol 77 : 6385 6393.[PubMed]
59. Xu P, Luthra P, Li Z, Fuentes S, D'Andrea JA, Wu J, Rubin S, Rota PA, He B . 2012. The V protein of mumps virus plays a critical role in pathogenesis. J Virol 86 : 1768 1776.[PubMed]
60. Ramachandran A, Horvath CM . 2010. Dissociation of paramyxovirus interferon evasion activities: universal and virus-specific requirements for conserved V protein amino acids in MDA5 interference. J Virol 84 : 11152 11163.[PubMed]
61. Takeuchi K, Tanabayashi K, Hishiyama M, Yamada A . 1996. The mumps virus SH protein is a membrane protein and not essential for virus growth. Virology 225 : 156 162.[PubMed]
62. Xu P, Li Z, Sun D, Lin Y, Wu J, Rota PA, He B . 2011. Rescue of wild-type mumps virus from a strain associated with recent outbreaks helps to define the role of the SH ORF in the pathogenesis of mumps virus. Virology 417 : 126 136.[PubMed]
63. Wilson RL, Fuentes SM, Wang P, Taddeo EC, Klatt A, Henderson AJ, He B . 2006. Function of small hydrophobic proteins of paramyxovirus. J Virol 80 : 1700 1709.[PubMed]
64. Woznik M, Rodner C, Lemon K, Rima B, Mankertz A, Finsterbusch T . 2010. The mumps virus small hydrophobic protein targets ataxin-1 ubiquitin-like interacting protein (ubiquilin 4). J Gen Virol 91 ( Pt 11 ): 2773 2781.
65. Herrler G, Compans RW . 1982. Synthesis of mumps virus polypeptides in infected Vero cells. Virology 119 : 430 438.[PubMed]
66. Johnson JB, Lyles DS, Alexander-Miller MA, Parks GD . 2012. Virion-associated complement regulator CD55 is more potent than CD46 in mediating resistance of mumps virus and vesicular stomatitis virus to neutralization. J Virol 86 : 9929 9940.[PubMed]
67. Krüger N, Hoffmann M, Drexler JF, Müller MA, Corman VM, Sauder C, Rubin S, He B, Örvell C, Drosten C, Herrler G . 2015. Functional properties and genetic relatedness of the fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins of a mumps virus–like bat virus. J Virol 89 : 4539 4548.[PubMed]
68. Xu P, Huang Z, Gao X, Michel FJ, Hirsch G, Hogan RJ, Sakamoto K, Ho W, Wu J, He B . 2013. Infection of mice, ferrets, and rhesus macaques with a clinical mumps virus isolate. J Virol 87 : 8158 8168.[PubMed]
69. Weil ML . , et al . 1948. Purification, pH stability and culture of the mumps virus. J Immunol 60 : 561 582.[PubMed]
70. Afzal MA, Dussupt V, Minor PD, Pipkin PA, Fleck R, Hockley DJ, Stacey GN . 2005. Assessment of mumps virus growth on various continuous cell lines by virological, immunological, molecular and morphological investigations. J Virol Methods 126 : 149 156.[PubMed]
71. Deinhardt F, Henle G . 1956. Determination of neutralizing antibodies against mumps virus in HeLa cell cultures. J Immunol 77 : 40 46.[PubMed]
72. Hirsch RL, Wolinsky JS, Winkelstein JA . 1986. Activation of the alternative complement pathway by mumps infected cells: relationship to viral neuraminidase activity. Arch Virol 87 : 181 190.[PubMed]
73. Castells E, George VG, Hierholzer JC . 1990. NCI-H292 as an alternative cell line for the isolation and propagation of the human paramyxoviruses. Arch Virol 115 : 277 288.[PubMed]
74. Andzhaparidze OG, Bogomolova NN, Boriskin YuS, Drynov ID . 1983. Chronic non-cytopathic infection of human continuous cell lines with mumps virus. Acta Virol 27 : 318 328.[PubMed]
75. Tsurudome M, Yamada A, Hishiyama M, Ito Y . 1984. Replication of mumps virus in murine cells. Arch Virol 81 : 13 24.[PubMed]
76. Henle G, Deinhardt F . 1955. Propagation and primary isolation of mumps virus in tissue culture. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 89 : 556 560.[PubMed]
77. Duc-Nguyen H, Henle W . 1966. Replication of mumps virus in human leukocyte cultures. J Bacteriol 92 : 258 265.[PubMed]
78. Fleischer B, Kreth HW . 1982. Mumps virus replication in human lymphoid cell lines and in peripheral blood lymphocytes: preference for T cells. Infect Immun 35 : 25 31.[PubMed]
79. Overman JR . 1958. Viremia in human mumps virus infections. AMA Arch Intern Med 102 : 354 356.[PubMed]
80. Kilham L . 1948. Isolation of mumps virus from the blood of a patient. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 69 : 99 100.[PubMed]
81. Connaughton SM, Wheeler JX, Vitková E, Minor P, Schepelmann S . 2015. In vitro and in vivo growth alter the population dynamic and properties of a Jeryl Lynn mumps vaccine. Vaccine 33 : 4586 4593.[PubMed]
82. McCarthy M, Wolinsky JS, Lazzarini RA . 1981. A persistent infection of Vero cells by egg-adapted mumps virus. Virology 114 : 343 356.[PubMed]
83. Ito Y, Tsurudome M, Hishiyama M . 1985. Persistence of mumps virus in mouse L929 cells. Microbiol Immunol 29 : 847 857.[PubMed]
84. Truant AL, Hallum JV . 1977. A persistent infection of baby hamster kidney-21 cells with mumps virus and the role of temperature-sensitive variants. J Med Virol 1 : 49 67.[PubMed]
85. Ogino T, Kotake S, Yoshida TO . 1980. Persistent infection of mouse tumor cells with mumps virus. Biken J 23 : 15 24.[PubMed]
86. Henle G, Deinhardt F, Bergs VV, Henle W . 1958. Studies on persistent infections of tissue cultures. I. General aspects of the system. J Exp Med 108 : 537 560.[PubMed]
87. Huppertz HI, Chantler JK . 1991. Restricted mumps virus infection of cells derived from normal human joint tissue. J Gen Virol 72 : 339 347.[PubMed]
88. Walker DL, Hinze HC . 1962. A carrier state of mumps virus in human conjunctiva cells. II. Observations on intercellular transfer of virus and virus release. J Exp Med 116 : 751 758.[PubMed]
89. Walker DL, Hinze HC . 1962. A carrier state of mumps virus in human conjunctiva cells. I. General characteristics. J Exp Med 116 : 739 750.[PubMed]
90. Buynak EB, Hilleman MR . 1966. Live attenuated mumps virus vaccine. 1. Vaccine development. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 123 : 768 775.[PubMed]
91. McAleer WJ, Markus HZ, McLean AA, Buynak EB, Hilleman MR . 1980. Stability on storage at various temperatures of live measles, mumps and rubella virus vaccines in new stabilizer. J Biol Stand 8 : 281 287.[PubMed]
92. Chu LW, Morgan HR . 1950. Studies of the hemolysis of red blood cells by mumps virus: I. The development of mumps virus hemolysin and its inactivation by certain physical and chemical agents. J Exp Med 91 : 393 402.[PubMed]
93. Jensik SC, Silver S . 1976. Polypeptides of mumps virus. J Virol 17 : 363 373.[PubMed]
94. Anderson RM, Crombie JA, Grenfell BT . 1987. The epidemiology of mumps in the UK: a preliminary study of virus transmission, herd immunity and the potential impact of immunization. Epidemiol Infect 99 : 65 84.[PubMed]
95. Galazka AM, Robertson SE, Kraigher A . 1999. Mumps and mumps vaccine: a global review. Bull World Health Organ 77 : 3 14.[PubMed]
96. Rubin S, Eckhaus M, Rennick LJ, Bamford CG, Duprex WP . 2015. Molecular biology, pathogenesis and pathology of mumps virus. J Pathol 235 : 242 252.[PubMed]
97. Henle G . , et al . 1948. Isolation of mumps virus from human beings with induced apparent or inapparent infections. J Exp Med 88 : 223 232.[PubMed]
98. Vink MA, Bootsma MC, Wallinga J . 2014. Serial intervals of respiratory infectious diseases: a systematic review and analysis. Am J Epidemiol 180 : 865 875.[PubMed]
99. Sparling D . 1969. Transmission of mumps. N Engl J Med 280 : 276.[PubMed]
100. Henle G, Henle W . 1951. Studies on the prevention of mumps. Pediatrics 8 : 1 4.[PubMed]
101. Reed D, Brown G, Merrick R, Sever J, Feltz E . 1967. A mumps epidemic on St. George Island, Alaska. JAMA 199 : 113 117.[PubMed]
102. Philip RN, Reinhard KR, Lackman DB . 1959. Observations on a mumps epidemic in a virgin population. Am J Hyg 69 : 91 111.[PubMed]
103. Falk WA, Buchan K, Dow M, Garson JZ, Hill E, Nosal M, Tarrant M, Westbury RC, White FM . 1989. The epidemiology of mumps in southern Alberta 1980–1982. Am J Epidemiol 130 : 736 749.[PubMed]
104. Levitt LP, Mahoney DH Jr, Casey HL, Bond JO . 1970. Mumps in a general population: a sero-epidemiologic study. Am J Dis Child 120 : 134 138.[PubMed]
105. Meyer MB . 1962. An epidemiologic study of mumps; its spread in schools and families. Am J Hyg 75 : 259 281.[PubMed]
106. Dittrich S, Hahné S, van Lier A, Kohl R, Boot H, Koopmans M, van Binnendijk R . 2011. Assessment of serological evidence for mumps virus infection in vaccinated children. Vaccine 29 : 9271 9275.[PubMed]
107. Vicens CN, Nobrega FT, Joseph JM, Meyer MB . 1966. Evaluation of tests for the measurement of previous mumps infection and analysis of mumps experience by blood group. Am J Epidemiol 84 : 371 381.[PubMed]
108. Simpson RE . 1952. Infectiousness of communicable diseases in the household (measles, chickenpox, and mumps). Lancet 2 : 549 554.[PubMed]
109. Gupta RK, Best J, MacMahon E . 2005. Mumps and the UK epidemic 2005. BMJ 330 : 1132 1135.[PubMed]
110. Abrams S, Beutels P, Hens N . 2014. Assessing mumps outbreak risk in highly vaccinated populations using spatial seroprevalence data. Am J Epidemiol 179 : 1006 1017.[PubMed]
111. Cochi SL, Preblud SR, Orenstein WA . 1988. Perspectives on the relative resurgence of mumps in the United States. Am J Dis Child 142 : 499 507.[PubMed]
112. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) . 1989. Mumps prevention. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 38 : 388392, 397–400.[PubMed]
113. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) . 1989. Mumps—United States, 1985–1988. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 38 : 101105.[PubMed]
114. Sosin DM, Cochi SL, Gunn RA, Jennings CE, Preblud SR . 1989. Changing epidemiology of mumps and its impact on university campuses. Pediatrics 84 : 779 784.[PubMed]
115. Wharton M, Cochi SL, Hutcheson RH, Bistowish JM, Schaffner W . 1988. A large outbreak of mumps in the postvaccine era. J Infect Dis 158 : 1253 1260.[PubMed]
116. van Loon FP, Holmes SJ, Sirotkin BI, Williams WW, Cochi SL, Hadler SC, Lindegren ML Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . 1995. Mumps surveillance—United States, 1988–1993. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ 44( SS-3) : 1 14.[PubMed]
117. Hopkins RS, Jajosky RA, Hall PA, Adams DA, Connor FJ, Sharp P, Anderson WJ, Fagan RF, Aponte JJ, Nitschke DA, Worsham CA, Adekoya N, Chang MH Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . 2005. Summary of notifiable diseases—United States, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 52 : 1 85.[PubMed]
118. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . 2006. Mumps epidemic—United kingdom, 2004–2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 55 : 173175.[PubMed]
119. Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D . 2005. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004: observational study. BMJ 330 : 1119 1120.[PubMed]
120. Katz SL, Hinman AR . 2004. Summary and conclusions: measles elimination meeting, 16–17 March 2000. J Infect Dis 189( Suppl 1) : S43 S47.[PubMed]
121. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . 2005. Elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome—United States, 1969–2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 54 : 279282.[PubMed]
122. Kutty PK, Kruszon-Moran DM, Dayan GH, Alexander JP, Williams NJ, Garcia PE, Hickman CJ, McQuillan GM, Bellini WJ . 2010. Seroprevalence of antibody to mumps virus in the US population, 1999–2004. J Infect Dis 202 : 667 674.[PubMed]
123. Dayan GH, Quinlisk MP, Parker AA, Barskey AE, Harris ML, Schwartz JM, Hunt K, Finley CG, Leschinsky DP, O'Keefe AL, Clayton J, Kightlinger LK, Dietle EG, Berg J, Kenyon CL, Goldstein ST, Stokley SK, Redd SB, Rota PA, Rota J, Bi D, Roush SW, Bridges CB, Santibanez TA, Parashar U, Bellini WJ, Seward JF . 2008. Recent resurgence of mumps in the United States. N Engl J Med 358 : 1580 1589.[PubMed]
124. Kancherla VS, Hanson IC . 2006. Mumps resurgence in the United States. J Allergy Clin Immunol 118 : 938 941.[PubMed]
125. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . 2006. Brief report: update: mumps activity—United States, January 1–October 7, 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 55 : 11521153.[PubMed]
126. Barskey AE, Schulte C, Rosen JB, Handschur EF, Rausch-Phung E, Doll MK, Cummings KP, Alleyne EO, High P, Lawler J, Apostolou A, Blog D, Zimmerman CM, Montana B, Harpaz R, Hickman CJ, Rota PA, Rota JS, Bellini WJ, Gallagher KM . 2012. Mumps outbreak in Orthodox Jewish communities in the United States. N Engl J Med 367 : 1704 1713.[PubMed]
127. Kutty PK, McLean HQ, Lawler J, Schulte C, Hudson JM, Blog D, Wallace G . 2014. Risk factors for transmission of mumps in a highly vaccinated population in Orange County, NY, 2009–2010. Pediatr Infect Dis J 33 : 121 125.[PubMed]
128. Parker Fiebelkorn A, Rosen JB, Brown C, Zimmerman CM, Renshowitz H, D'Andrea C, Gallagher KM, Harpaz R, Zucker JR . 2013. Environmental factors potentially associated with mumps transmission in yeshivas during a mumps outbreak among highly vaccinated students: Brooklyn, New York, 2009–2010. Hum Vaccin Immunother 9 : 189 194.[PubMed]
129. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . 2012. Mumps outbreak on a university campus—California, 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 61 : 986989.[PubMed]
130. Braeye T, Linina I, De Roy R, Hutse V, Wauters M, Cox P, Mak R . 2014. Mumps increase in Flanders, Belgium, 2012–2013: results from temporary mandatory notification and a cohort study among university students. Vaccine 32 : 4393 4398.[PubMed]
131. Sane J, Gouma S, Koopmans M, de Melker H, Swaan C, van Binnendijk R, Hahné S . 2014. Epidemic of mumps among vaccinated persons, The Netherlands, 2009–2012. Emerg Infect Dis 20 : 643 648.[PubMed]
132. Nelson GE, Aguon A, Valencia E, Oliva R, Guerrero ML, Reyes R, Lizama A, Diras D, Mathew A, Camacho EJ, Monforte MN, Chen TH, Mahamud A, Kutty PK, Hickman C, Bellini WJ, Seward JF, Gallagher K, Fiebelkorn AP . 2013. Epidemiology of a mumps outbreak in a highly vaccinated island population and use of a third dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine for outbreak control—Guam 2009 to 2010. Pediatr Infect Dis J 32 : 374 380.[PubMed]
133. Hassan J, Dean J, Moss E, Carr MJ, Hall WW, Connell J . 2012. Seroepidemiology of the recent mumps virus outbreaks in Ireland. J Clin Virol 53 : 320 324.[PubMed]
134. Greenland K, Whelan J, Fanoy E, Borgert M, Hulshof K, Yap KB, Swaan C, Donker T, van Binnendijk R, de Melker H, Hahné S . 2012. Mumps outbreak among vaccinated university students associated with a large party, the Netherlands, 2010. Vaccine 30 : 4676 4680.[PubMed]
135. Levine H, Ankol OE, Rozhavski V, Davidovitch N, Aboudy Y, Zarka S, Balicer RD . 2011. Sub-optimal prevalence of mumps antibodies in a population based study of young adults in Israel after 20 years of two dose universal vaccination policy. Vaccine 29 : 2785 2790.
136. Hayden GF, Preblud SR, Orenstein WA, Conrad JL . 1978. Current status of mumps and mumps vaccine in the United States. Pediatrics 62 : 965 969.[PubMed]
137. McLean HQ, Parker Fiebelkorn A, Temte JL, Wallace GS Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . 2013. Prevention of measles, rubella, congenital rubella syndrome, and mumps, 2013: summary recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 62( RR-04) : 1 34.[PubMed]
138. Barskey AE, Glasser JW, LeBaron CW . 2009. Mumps resurgences in the United States: a historical perspective on unexpected elements. Vaccine 27 : 6186 6195.[PubMed]
139. Peltola H, Kulkarni PS, Kapre SV, Paunio M, Jadhav SS, Dhere RM . 2007. Mumps outbreaks in Canada and the United States: time for new thinking on mumps vaccines. Clin Infect Dis 45 : 459 466.[PubMed]
140. Elam-Evans LD, Yankey D, Singleton JA, Kolasa M Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . 2014. National, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among children aged 19–35 months—United States, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 63 : 741 748.[PubMed]
141. Gans H, DeHovitz R, Forghani B, Beeler J, Maldonado Y, Arvin AM . 2003. Measles and mumps vaccination as a model to investigate the developing immune system: passive and active immunity during the first year of life. Vaccine 21 : 3398 3405.[PubMed]
142. Vandermeulen C, Mathieu R, Geert LR, Pierre VD, Karel H . 2007. Long-term persistence of antibodies after one or two doses of MMR-vaccine. Vaccine 25 : 6672 6676.[PubMed]
143. Cohen C, White JM, Savage EJ, Glynn JR, Choi Y, Andrews N, Brown D, Ramsay ME . 2007. Vaccine effectiveness estimates, 2004–2005 mumps outbreak, England. Emerg Infect Dis 13 : 12 17.[PubMed]
144. Homan EJ, Bremel RD . 2014. Are cases of mumps in vaccinated patients attributable to mismatches in both vaccine T-cell and B-cell epitopes? an immunoinformatic analysis. Hum Vaccin Immunother 10 : 290 300.[PubMed]
145. Rubin SA, Link MA, Sauder CJ, Zhang C, Ngo L, Rima BK, Duprex WP . 2012. Recent mumps outbreaks in vaccinated populations: no evidence of immune escape. J Virol 86 : 615 620.[PubMed]
146. Fine PE, Zell ER . 1994. Outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations: implications for studies of vaccine performance. Am J Epidemiol 139 : 77 90.[PubMed]
147. Plotkin SA . 2013. Commentary: mumps vaccines: do we need a new one? Pediatr Infect Dis J 32 : 381 382.[PubMed]
148. Whelan J, van Binnendijk R, Greenland K, Fanoy E, Khargi M, Yap K, Boot H, Veltman N, Swaan C, van der Bij A, de Melker H, Hahné S . 2010. Ongoing mumps outbreak in a student population with high vaccination coverage, Netherlands, 2010. Euro Surveill 15( 17 ) : pii: 19554.[PubMed]
149. Anis E, Grotto I, Moerman L, Warshavsky B, Slater PE, Lev B . 2012. Mumps outbreak in Israel's highly vaccinated society: are two doses enough? Epidemiol Infect 140 : 439 446.[PubMed]
150. Davidkin I, Jokinen S, Broman M, Leinikki P, Peltola H . 2008. Persistence of measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies in an MMR-vaccinated cohort: a 20-year follow-up. J Infect Dis 197 : 950 956.[PubMed]
151. Chiba Y, Horino K, Umetsu M, Wataya Y, Chiba S, Nakao T . 1973. Virus excretion and antibody response in saliva in natural mumps. Tohoku J Exp Med 111 : 229 238.[PubMed]
152. Ennis FA, Jackson D . 1968. Isolation of virus during the incubation period of mumps infection. J Pediatr 72 : 536 537.[PubMed]
153. Rota JS, Rosen JB, Doll MK, McNall RJ, McGrew M, Williams N, Lopareva EN, Barskey AE, Punsalang A Jr, Rota PA, Oleszko WR, Hickman CJ, Zimmerman CM, Bellini WJ . 2013. Comparison of the sensitivity of laboratory diagnostic methods from a well-characterized outbreak of mumps in New York City in 2009. Clin Vaccine Immunol 20 : 391 396.[PubMed]
154. Hviid A, Rubin S, Mühlemann K . 2008. Mumps. Lancet 371 : 932 944.[PubMed]
155. Weller TH, Craig JM . 1949. The isolation of mumps at autopsy. Am J Pathol 25 : 1105 1115.[PubMed]
156. Bjorvatn B . 1973. Mumps virus recovered from testicles by fine-needle aspiration biopsy in cases of mumps orchitis. Scand J Infect Dis 5 : 3 5.[PubMed]
157. Jalal H, Bahadur G, Knowles W, Jin L, Brink N . 2004. Mumps epididymo-orchitis with prolonged detection of virus in semen and the development of anti-sperm antibodies. J Med Virol 73 : 147 150.[PubMed]
158. Fujieda M, Kinoshita A, Naruse K, Nakayama T, Moriki T, Wakiguchi H, Kurashige T . 2000. Mumps associated with immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 19 : 669 671.[PubMed]
159. Utz JP, Houk VN, Alling DW . 1964. Clinical and laboratory studies of mumps. IV. Viruria and abnormal renal function. N Engl J Med 270 : 1283 1286.[PubMed]
160. Eylan E, Zmucky R, Sheba C . 1957. Mumps virus and subacute thyroiditis: evidence of a causal association. Lancet 272 : 1062 1063.[PubMed]
161. Kalkan A, Ozden M, Yilmaz T, Demirdag K, Bulut Y, Ozdarendeli A . 2004. A case of mumps conjunctivitis: detection of the virus RNA by nested PCR in tear sample. Scand J Infect Dis 36 : 697 700.[PubMed]
162. de Godoy CV, de Brito T, Tiriba AC, de Campos CM . 1969. Fatal mumps meningoencephalitis. Isolation of virus from human brain (case report). Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 11 : 436 441.[PubMed]
163. Utz JP, Kasel JA, Cramblett HG, Szwed CF, Parrott RH . 1957. Clinical and laboratory studies of mumps. I. Laboratory diagnosis by tissue-culture technics. N Engl J Med 257 : 497 502.[PubMed]
164. Barcena-Panero A, de Ory F, Castellanos A, Echevarria JE CIBERESP Working Group of the Program of Surveillance, Prevention and Control of Transmissible Diseases. 2014. Mumps-associated meningitis and encephalitis in patients with no suspected mumps infection. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 79 : 171 173.
165. Ni J, Bowles NE, Kim YH, Demmler G, Kearney D, Bricker JT, Towbin JA . 1997. Viral infection of the myocardium in endocardial fibroelastosis. Molecular evidence for the role of mumps virus as an etiologic agent. Circulation 95 : 133 139.[PubMed]
166. Kilham L . 1951. Mumps virus in human milk and in milk of infected monkey. J Am Med Assoc 146 : 1231 1232.[PubMed]
167. Yamauchi T, Wilson C, St. Geme JW Jr . 1974. Transmission of live, attenuated mumps virus to the human placenta. N Engl J Med 290 : 710 712.[PubMed]
168. Kurtz JB, Tomlinson AH, Pearson J . 1982. Mumps virus isolated from a fetus. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 284 : 471.[PubMed]
169. Garcia AG, Pereira JM, Vidigal N, Lobato YY, Pegado CS, Branco JP . 1980. Intrauterine infection with mumps virus. Obstet Gynecol 56 : 756 759.[PubMed]
170. Siegel M, Fuerst HT, Peress NS . 1966. Comparative fetal mortality in maternal virus diseases: a prospective study on rubella, measles, mumps, chicken pox and hepatitis. N Engl J Med 274 : 768 771.[PubMed]
171. Ylinen O, Jarvinen PA . 1953. Parotitis during pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 32 : 121 132.[PubMed]
172. Siegel M . 1973. Congenital malformations following chickenpox, measles, mumps, and hepatitis. Results of a cohort study. JAMA 226 : 1521 1524.[PubMed]
173. Bistrian B, Phillips CA, Kaye IS . 1972. Fatal mumps meningoencephalitis: isolation of virus premortem and postmortem. JAMA 222 : 478 479.[PubMed]
174. Boström K . 1968. Patho-anatomical findings in a case of mumps with pancreatitis, myocarditis, orchitis, epididymitis and seminal vesiculitis. Virchows Arch A Pathol Pathol Anat 344 : 111 118.[PubMed]
175. Donohue WL, Playfair FD, Whitaker L . 1955. Mumps encephalitis; pathology and pathogenesis. J Pediatr 47 : 395 412.[PubMed]
176. Bruyn HB, Sexton HM, Brainerd HD . 1957. Mumps meningoencephalitis: a clinical review of 119 cases with one death. Calif Med 86 : 153 160.[PubMed]
177. Johnson CD, Goodpasture EW . 1936. The histopathology of experimental mumps in the monkey, Macacus rhesus. Am J Pathol 12 : 495 510.7.
178. McLean HQ, Hickman CJ, Seward JF . 2010. The Immunological Basis for Immunization Series, Module 16: Mumps. World Health Organization, Geneva.
179. Ternavasio-de la Vega HG, Boronat M, Ojeda A, García-Delgado Y, Angel-Moreno A, Carranza-Rodríguez C, Bellini R, Francès A, Nóvoa FJ, Pérez-Arellano JL . 2010. Mumps orchitis in the post-vaccine era (1967–2009): a single-center series of 67 patients and review of clinical outcome and trends. Medicine (Baltimore) 89 : 96 116.[PubMed]
180. Gall EA . 1947. The histopathology of acute mumps orchitis. Am J Pathol 23 : 637 651.[PubMed]
181. Charny CW, Meranze DR . 1948. Pathology of mumps orchitis. J Urol 60 : 140 146.[PubMed]
182. Adamopoulos DA, Lawrence DM, Vassilopoulos P, Contoyiannis PA, Swyer GI . 1978. Pituitary-testicular interrelationships in mumps orchitis and other viral infections. BMJ 1 : 1177 1180.[PubMed]
183. Kabakuş N, Aydinoğlu H, Yekeler H, Arslan IN . 1999. Fatal mumps nephritis and myocarditis. J Trop Pediatr 45 : 358 360.[PubMed]
184. Kabakuş N, Aydinoğlu H, Bakkaloğlu SA, Yekeler H . 1999. Mumps interstitial nephritis: a case report. Pediatr Nephrol 13 : 930 931.[PubMed]
185. Lin CY, Chen WP, Chiang H . 1990. Mumps associated with nephritis. Child Nephrol Urol 10 : 68 71.[PubMed]
186. Trimble GX . 1967. Mumps with nephritis. Can Med Assoc J 97 : 1171.[PubMed]