Chapter 45 : Arenaviruses

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Viruses of the family (genus ) are zoonotic; they are maintained in nature, with a few possible exceptions, by chronic infection in rodents of the superfamily Muroidea (1). Over 40 arenaviruses have been identified, although less than half of these are clearly recognized as human pathogens (Table 1 and Figures 1 and 2). Arenaviruses continue to be discovered at a quickening pace in recent decades (2–10).

Citation: Bausch D. 2017. Arenaviruses, p 1089-1111. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch45
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Image of FIGURE 1

Geographic distribution of Old World arenaviruses. The virus name and known or suspected rodent reservoir are listed. Although the virus has been isolated from the animal listed, the status of that animal as the natural reservoir is not established in all cases. Countries where Lassa fever, the major arenaviral disease in Africa, has been definitively shown are depicted in dark gray and the distribution of rodents of the genus is shown in light gray. Only Lassa, Lujo, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, and Dandenong viruses have been definitively associated with human disease. The distribution of the virus and incidence of associated disease may vary significantly within each country. With the exception of Lassa and lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses, most Old World arenaviruses have been isolated on single or very few occasions and the precise distribution of the virus beyond the place of first identification is unknown. Not shown on the map: Lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses (reservoir ), which has a worldwide distribution, Dandenong virus (unknown reservoir), which is thought to be found in Eastern Europe, and Wenzhou virus (reservoir various rodent species and ) found in China.

Citation: Bausch D. 2017. Arenaviruses, p 1089-1111. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch45
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Image of FIGURE 2

Geographic distribution of New World arenaviruses. Above: The virus name and known or suspected rodent reservoir are listed, with viruses associated with natural infection and disease in humans in bold. Although the virus has been isolated from the animal listed, the status of that animal as the natural reservoir is not established in all cases. Countries with arenaviruses definitively associated with human disease are shaded gray. The distribution of the virus and incidence of associated disease may vary significantly within each country. Many of the New World arenaviruses have been isolated on single or very few occasions and the precise distribution of the virus beyond the place of first identification is unknown. On next page: Closeup of administrative regions in which Venezuelan, Bolivian, Chapare, and Argentine hemorrhagic fever have been recognized. The distribution of the viruses and incidence of disease may vary significantly within the region.

Citation: Bausch D. 2017. Arenaviruses, p 1089-1111. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch45
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Image of FIGURE 3

Phylogenetic relationships of arenaviruses inferred based on full S segment nucleotide sequences. Phylogenies were reconstructed by neighbor-joining analysis applying the JUKES-Cantor model (1,000 replicates). The A, B, C, and D clades of the New World and Old World arenaviruses are delineated. Lujo virus (LUJV) falls between the two groups but appears to be closest to the Old World viruses, thus corresponding to its site of isolation in Zambia. The scale bar indicates substitutions per site. Genbank accession numbers are shown after each virus. Similar relationships are demonstrated based on L segment analysis (not shown). Abbreviations: AMAV, Ampari virus; BCNV, Bear Canyon virus; CHPV, Chapare virus; CPXV, Cupixi virus; DANV, Dandenong virus; FLEV, Flexal virus; GTOV, Guanarito virus; IPPV, Ippy virus; JUNV, Junín virus; LASV, Lassa virus; LATV, Latino virus; LCMV, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus; LUJV, Lujo virus; LUKV, Lunk virus; LUNV, Luna virus; MACV, Machupo virus; MOBV, Mobala virus; MOPV, Mopeia virus; MORV, Morogoro virus; OLVV, Oliveros virus; PARV, Paraná virus; PICV, Pichinde virus; PIRV, Pirital virus; SABV, Sabiá virus; TCRV, Tacaribe; TAMV, Tamiami virus; WWAV, Whitewater Arroyo virus. Viruses not shown due to incomplete or unavailable sequence data: Allpahuayo, Big Brushy Tank, California Academy of Sciences, Catarina, Collierville, Gairo, Gbagroube, Golden Gate, Kodoko, Lemniscomys, Mariental, Menekre, Merino Walk, Ocozocoautla de Espinosa, Okahandja, Pinhal, Real de Catorce, Skinner Tank, Tonto Creek, and Wenzhou.

Citation: Bausch D. 2017. Arenaviruses, p 1089-1111. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch45
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Image of FIGURE 4

Electron micrograph of Lassa virus. The typical sandy appearance of arenaviruses from the internal ribosomes is evident, as well as the surface glycoprotein spikes. Magnification approximately ×55,000. Micrograph courtesy of F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Citation: Bausch D. 2017. Arenaviruses, p 1089-1111. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch45
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Image of FIGURE 5

Replication strategy of arenaviruses. See text for details. (Prepared by A. Sanchez.)

Citation: Bausch D. 2017. Arenaviruses, p 1089-1111. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch45
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Image of FIGURE 6

Transmission cycle of arenaviruses illustrating chronic infection in rodents. Transmission between rodents may be vertical or horizontal depending upon the specific arenavirus. Humans are incidental hosts who play no role in virus maintenance in nature. (Adapted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Bausch D. 2017. Arenaviruses, p 1089-1111. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch45
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Image of FIGURE 7

Clinical manifestations of arenaviral hemorrhagic fever. (A) Petechial rash in Argentine hemorrhagic fever. (B) Maculopapular rash in Lujo hemorrhagic fever (photo by T. H. Dinh). (C) Conjunctival injection in Lassa fever (photo by Donald Grant). (D) Facial swelling and mild gum bleeding in Lassa fever (photo by Donald Grant). (E) Gum bleeding in Argentine hemorrhagic fever. Photos used with permission from Blumberg L, Enria D, and Bausch DG. Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers. In J Farrar et al. (ed): , 23rd Edition, Elsevier Publishing, 2013.

Citation: Bausch D. 2017. Arenaviruses, p 1089-1111. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch45
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