Chapter 5 : Viral Hepatitis

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Viral hepatitis describes a characteristic clinical syndrome resulting from necro-inflammatory pathology of the liver that is caused by one of the recognized hepatitis viruses. There are five established human hepatotropic hepatitis viruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Acute hepatitis can also be a manifestation of other systemic viral infections, including herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus) and yellow fever. Although the human hepatitis viruses can all cause the syndrome of acute hepatitis, they have distinct virology, phylogeny, routes of transmission, and risk of chronicity. In this chapter, we discuss the typical clinical syndromes and pathological features of viral hepatitis due to the hepatitis viruses A-E (Table 1), as well as the diagnostic evaluation of patients presenting with suspected viral hepatitis.

Citation: Valaydon Z, Locarnini S, Thompson A. 2017. Viral Hepatitis, p 61-73. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 1

Viral hepatitis. Top long arrow shows focal steatosis and bottom arrows show portal inflammation. Source: Prof Richard Williams, Anatomical Pathologist, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne.

Citation: Valaydon Z, Locarnini S, Thompson A. 2017. Viral Hepatitis, p 61-73. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch5
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Clinical and epidemiological features of viral hepatitis

Citation: Valaydon Z, Locarnini S, Thompson A. 2017. Viral Hepatitis, p 61-73. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch5
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Common serological patterns of viral hepatitis

Citation: Valaydon Z, Locarnini S, Thompson A. 2017. Viral Hepatitis, p 61-73. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch5
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Screening for HBV and HCV is recommended in people with the following risk factors

Citation: Valaydon Z, Locarnini S, Thompson A. 2017. Viral Hepatitis, p 61-73. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch5
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Differential diagnoses for acute liver injury

Citation: Valaydon Z, Locarnini S, Thompson A. 2017. Viral Hepatitis, p 61-73. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch5

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