Chapter 52 : Coronaviruses

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Coronaviruses, Page 1 of 2

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The name coronavirus derives from the Latin word “corona,” meaning crown or halo, and this refers to the “crown-like” fringe of projections seen on the surface of virus particles when viewed under the electron microscope (Fig. 1). The first coronavirus to be recovered was infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) from chickens with respiratory disease, reported by Beaudette and Hudson in 1937 (1). Murine hepatitis viruses (MHV) (2) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in swine (3) were then recognized as causes of other animal diseases. The relationship between these viruses was not appreciated until after the human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were discovered in the 1960s and the genus was defined. Tyrrell and Bynoe (4) described the first HCoV, designated as B814, by inoculating specimens from a patient with a “cold” onto organ cultures of human embryonic trachea. Using electron microscopy (EM), the virus was found to resemble avian IBV (5). At about the same time, Hamre and Procknow (6) recovered five HCoV strains from medical students with colds and cultivated them in human embryo kidney cells. The prototype strain HCoV 229E had morphology that was identical to that of B814 and IBV. McIntosh et al. used the organ culture technique to recover six further strains, including the prototype strain HCoV OC43 and three other strains considered antigenically unrelated to either OC43 or 229E (7).

Citation: Peiris J. 2017. Coronaviruses, p 1243-1265. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch52
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Image of FIGURE 1

Coronavirus OC16, viewed by EM and negatively stained. The characteristic round or oval shape is seen, along with petal-shaped peplomers. Bar, 100 nm.

Citation: Peiris J. 2017. Coronaviruses, p 1243-1265. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch52
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Image of FIGURE 2

Phylogenetic relationships among coronaviruses. The phylogenetic tree was generated with an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene using the maximum likelihood method. Supports for branches were estimated by the Shimodaira-Hasegawa-like method and are shown at major nodes. The four coronavirus genera are indicated in circles. The betacoronavirus lineages A–D are denoted. Human coronaviruses included in the analysis are underlined.

Citation: Peiris J. 2017. Coronaviruses, p 1243-1265. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch52
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Image of FIGURE 3

Coronavirus 229E in WI38 cells. Characteristic crescents (Cr) of budding particles (B) are seen, as well as particles that are free in cytoplasmic vesicles.

Citation: Peiris J. 2017. Coronaviruses, p 1243-1265. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch52
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Image of FIGURE 4

(A) Genome organization of alphacoronaviruses HCoV 229E and HCoV NL63 and betacoronaviruses HCoV OC43, HCoV HKU1, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV. Genes and open reading frames (ORFs) of the genomes are shown, with accessory genes indicated in dark grey boxes. Positions of papain-like proteases (PL), chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and helicase (Hel) encoded in ORF1a and ORF1b are shown in light grey. (B) The 3’ coterminal nested set of coronavirus mRNA is shown for HcoV 229E. The black boxes indicate the region of each mRNA being translated.

Citation: Peiris J. 2017. Coronaviruses, p 1243-1265. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch52
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