Chapter 53 : Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses

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In 1901 the prototype flavivirus disease, yellow fever, was the first human illness shown to be caused by a filterable virus, and, in 1927, it became the first member of the flavivirus family to be isolated. The derive their name from yellow ( Latin) fever. From the medical perspective, the flaviviruses are the most important group of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are major causes of human morbidity worldwide. Yellow fever remains an epidemic threat in Africa and South America. Since its introduction into North America, West Nile virus (WNV) has caused annual outbreaks of encephalitis and febrile illness in North America and has spread throughout the Americas as far south as Argentina; Japanese encephalitis (JE) remains a major cause of viral encephalitis in Asia.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2017. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1267-1311. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch53
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Image of FIGURE 1

Geographical distribution of JE.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2017. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1267-1311. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch53
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Image of FIGURE 2

Transmission cycle of JE virus. Broken lines indicate speculative portions of the transmission cycle.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2017. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1267-1311. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch53
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Image of FIGURE 3

SLE neuroinvasive disease cases by state, 2004–2013.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2017. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1267-1311. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch53
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Image of FIGURE 4

Transmission cycle of SLE virus and WNV. Both viruses are transmitted in a cycle between birds and Culex mosquitoes. is an important vector in the northern United States and Canada. is important in the southern United States, whereas is important in the western United States. In addition, is a vector in Florida. Other mosquito species may be “bridge” vectors to horses, humans, and other dead-end hosts, which typically do not develop high-level viremia and do not participate in the transmission cycle. However, bridge vectors likely have a minor role compared to enzootic vectors in viral transmission to dead-end hosts.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2017. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1267-1311. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch53
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Image of FIGURE 5

Number of reported cases of SLE, 1932–2012.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2017. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1267-1311. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch53
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Image of FIGURE 6

Geographical distribution of TBE.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2017. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1267-1311. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch53
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Image of FIGURE 7

Transmission cycle of TBE. Reprinted with permission from T. P. Monath and E. X. Heinz. 1996. Flaviviruses, page 994. In B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley (eds.), , third edition. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2017. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1267-1311. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch53
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Image of FIGURE 8

Expansion of WNV in North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, 1999 to 2006. Areas demarcated by solid lines confirmed by virological confirmation in mosquitoes or vertebrates. Areas demarcated by dashed lines are those with serological evidence in vertebrates only. Serological evidence of WNV was found in Colombia and Venezuela in 2004, and WNV caused an equine outbreak in Argentina in 2006.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2017. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1267-1311. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch53
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Image of FIGURE 9

Geographical risk map of dengue fever.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2017. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1267-1311. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch53
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Image of FIGURE 10

Simplified transmission cycle of dengue and yellow fever viruses. Both viruses have a jungle cycle involving tree-hole mosquitoes. In the Americas, sp. transmits yellow fever, but no jungle cycle for dengue has been discovered. In Africa, both viruses are transmitted in jungle cycles involving spp. Yellow fever does not exist in Asia, but in Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and probably elsewhere, dengue virus is transmitted in a jungle cycle involving spp. The relationship between the jungle cycle of dengue and human infections is not clear. However, the jungle cycle of yellow fever is a source of human infections in the Americas and Africa. Dengue transmission occurs principally in urban environments, where domestic serves as the vector and humans serve as the viremic host. A similar cycle of yellow fever transmission occurs commonly in West Africa. No urban outbreaks of yellow fever have occurred in the Americas since 1964, except possibly for a very limited outbreak in Bolivia in 1997 to 1998.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2017. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1267-1311. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch53
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Image of FIGURE 11

Geographical distribution of yellow fever.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2017. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1267-1311. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch53
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