Chapter 16 : Emerging Tick-Borne Bacterial Pathogens

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Emerging Tick-Borne Bacterial Pathogens, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819453/9781555819446_Chap16-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819453/9781555819446_Chap16-2.gif


Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods that are considered to be the second most common vectors of pathogens after the mosquitoes that cause diseases in humans ( ). Two families of ticks are capable of transmitting a broad range of pathogens ( ): (hard ticks) currently comprise over 700 species worldwide ( ), and (soft ticks) comprise roughly 200 species ( ). A vast number of novel tick-related microorganisms and tick-borne disease agents have been identified in the past 20 years, and more are being described due to several factors, from the curiosity of clinicians faced with unusual clinical syndromes to new tools used by microbiologists and entomologists ( ). Borrelioses, ehrlichioses, anaplasmosis, and tick-borne rickettsial diseases are some of the emerging diseases that have been described throughout the world in recent years. In certain cases, the microorganism has been identified from ticks before its causal relationship with a disease is established; examples of new pathogens associated with human infections include Neoehrlichia mikurensis ( N. mikurensis), , and some species ( ). In contrast, other emerging tick-borne diseases such as ehrlichiosis are caused by “–like,” or EML, agents, with cases being identified first and the correlation with tick bites being recognized later ( ). In this chapter, we focus on the bacterial agents and diseases that have been recognized in the past three years and refer to major recent reviews of other recognized infections, diagnosis, and treatment aspects.

Citation: Kernif T, Leulmi H, Raoult D, Parola P. 2016. Emerging Tick-Borne Bacterial Pathogens, p 295-310. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0012-2016
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Parola P,, Raoult D . 2001. Ticks and tickborne bacterial diseases in humans: an emerging infectious threat. Clin Infect Dis 32 : 897 928.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
2. Estrada-Peña A . 2015. Ticks as vectors: taxonomy, biology and ecology. Rev Sci Tech 34 : 53 65.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
3. Guglielmone AA,, Nava S . 2014. Names for Ixodidae ( Acari: Ixodoidea): valid, synonyms, incertae sedis, nomina dubia, nomina nuda, lapsus, incorrect and suppressed names—with notes on confusions and misidentifications. Zootaxa 3767 : 1 256.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
4. Horak IG,, Camicas JL,, Keirans JE . 2002. The Argasidae, Ixodidae and Nuttalliellidae ( Acari: Ixodida): a world list of valid tick names. Exp Appl Acarol 28 : 27 54.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
5. Tijsse-Klasen E,, Koopmans MP,, Sprong H . 2014. Tick-borne pathogen: reversed and conventional discovery of disease. Front Public Health 2 : 73. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
6. Parola P,, Paddock CD,, Socolovschi C,, Labruna MB,, Mediannikov O,, Kernif T,, Abdad MY,, Stenos J,, Bitam I,, Fournier PE,, Raoult D . 2013. Update on tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: a geographic approach. Clin Microbiol Rev 26 : 657 702.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
7. Platonov AE,, Karan LS,, Kolyasnikova NM,, Makhneva NA,, Toporkova MG,, Maleev VV,, Fish D,, Krause PJ . 2011. Humans infected with relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis 17 : 1816 1823.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
8. Welinder-Olsson C,, Kjellin E,, Vaht K,, Jacobsson S,, Wenneras C . 2010. First case of human “ Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” infection in a febrile patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Clin Microbiol 48 : 1956 1959.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
9. Pritt BS,, Sloan LM,, Johnson DK,, Munderloh UG,, Paskewitz SM,, McElroy KM,, McFadden JD,, Binnicker MJ,, Neitzel DF,, Liu G,, Nicholson WL,, Nelson CM,, Franson JJ,, Martin SA,, Cunningham SA,, Steward CR,, Bogumill K,, Bjorgaard ME,, Davis JP,, McQuiston JH,, Warshauer DM,, Wilhelm MP,, Patel R,, Trivedi VA,, Eremeeva ME . 2011. Emergence of a new pathogenic Ehrlichia species, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 2009. N Engl J Med 365 : 422 429.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
10. Kumsa B,, Socolovschi C,, Raoult D,, Parola P . 2015. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 6 : 8 15.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
11. Lorusso V,, Gruszka KA,, Majekodunmi A,, Igweh A,, Welburn SC,, Picozzi K . 2013. Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum ticks, Uganda and Nigeria. Emerg Infect Dis 19 : 1705 1707.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
12. Maina AN,, Jiang J,, Omulo SA,, Cutler SJ,, Ade F,, Ogola E,, Feikin DR,, Njenga MK,, Cleaveland S,, Mpoke S,, Ng’ang’a Z,, Breiman RF,, Knobel DL,, Richards AL . 2014. High prevalence of Rickettsia africae variants in Amblyomma variegatum ticks from domestic mammals in rural western Kenya: implications for human health. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 14 : 693 702.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
13. Nakao R,, Qiu Y,, Igarashi M,, Magona JW,, Zhou L,, Ito K,, Sugimoto C . 2013. High prevalence of spotted fever group Rickettsiae in Amblyomma variegatum from Uganda and their identification using sizes of intergenic spacers. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 4 : 506 512.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
14. Nakao R,, Qiu Y,, Salim B,, Hassan SM,, Sugimoto C . 2015. Molecular detection of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum collected from Sudan. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 15 : 323 325.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
15. Sambou M,, Faye N,, Bassene H,, Diatta G,, Raoult D,, Mediannikov O . 2014. Identification of rickettsial pathogens in ixodid ticks in northern Senegal. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 5 : 552 556.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
16. Yssouf A,, Socolovschi C,, Kernif T,, Temmam S,, Lagadec E,, Tortosa P,, Parola P . 2014. First molecular detection of Rickettsia africae in ticks from the Union of the Comoros. Parasit Vectors 7 : 444. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
17. Zammarchi L,, Farese A,, Trotta M,, Amantini A,, Raoult D,, Bartoloni A . 2014. Rickettsia africae infection complicated with painful sacral syndrome in an Italian traveller returning from Zimbabwe. Int. J Infect Dis 29 : 194 196.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
18. Kleinerman G,, Baneth G,, Mumcuoglu KY,, van Straten M,, Berlin D,, Apanaskevich DA,, Abdeen Z,, Nasereddin A,, Harrus S . 2013. Molecular detection of Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia aeschlimannii, and Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae in camels and Hyalomma spp. ticks from Israel. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 13 : 851 856.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
19. Waner T,, Keysary A,, Eremeeva ME,, Din AB,, Mumcuoglu KY,, King R,, Atiya-Nasagi Y . 2014. Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in ticks in Israel. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90 : 920 922.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
20. Chochlakis D,, Bongiorni C,, Partalis N,, Tselentis Y,, Psaroulaki A . 2015. Possible Rickettsia massiliae infection in Greece: an imported case. Jpn J Infect Dis. [Epub ahead of print.] doi:10.7883/yoken.JJID.2015.195. [CrossRef]
21. de Sousa R,, Pereira BI,, Nazareth C,, Cabral S,, Ventura C,, Crespo P,, Marques N,, da Cunha S . 2013. Rickettsia slovaca infection in humans, Portugal. Emerg Infect Dis 19 : 1627 1629.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
22. Gaillard E,, Socolovschi C,, Fourcade C,, Lavigne JP,, Raoult D,, Sotto A . 2015. A case of severe sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation during Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae infection. Med Mal Infect 45 : 57 59. [In French.][PubMed] [CrossRef]
23. Germanakis A,, Chochlakis D,, Angelakis E,, Tselentis Y,, Psaroulaki A . 2013. Rickettsia aeschlimannii infection in a man, Greece. Emerg Infect Dis 19 : 1176 1177.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
24. Jia N,, Jiang JF,, Huo QB,, Jiang BG,, Cao WC . 2013. Rickettsia sibirica subspecies sibirica BJ-90 as a cause of human disease. N Engl J Med 369 : 1176 1178.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
25. Jia N,, Zheng YC,, Ma L,, Huo QB,, Ni XB,, Jiang BG,, Chu YL,, Jiang RR,, Jiang JF,, Cao WC . 2014. Human infections with Rickettsia raoultii, China. Emerg Infect Dis 20 : 866 868.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
26. Kostopoulou V,, Chochlakis D,, Kanta C,, Katsanou A,, Rossiou K,, Rammos A,, Papadopoulos SF,, Katsarou T,, Tselentis Y,, Psaroulaki A,, Boukas C . 2015. A case of human infection by Rickettsia slovaca in Greece. Jpn J Infect Dis. [Epub ahead of print.] doi:10.7883/yoken.JJID.2015.194. [CrossRef]
27. Nelson R . 2015. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Native Americans. Lancet Infect Dis 15 : 1013 1014.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
28. Portillo A,, Garcia-Garcia C,, Sanz MM,, Santibanez S,, Venzal JM,, Oteo JA . 2013. A confirmed case of Rickettsia parkeri infection in a traveler from Uruguay. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89 : 1203 1205.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
29. Pulido-Perez A,, Gomez-Recuero L,, Lozano-Masdemont B,, Suarez-Fernandez R . 2015. Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae infection in two immunocompetent adults. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 33 : 635 636. [In Spanish.][PubMed] [CrossRef]
30. Solary J,, Socolovschi C,, Aubry C,, Brouqui P,, Raoult D,, Parola P . 2014. Detection of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae by using cutaneous swab samples and quantitative PCR. Emerg Infect Dis 20 : 716 718.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
31. Nogueras MM,, Roson B,, Lario S,, Sanfeliu I,, Pons I,, Anton E,, Casanovas A,, Segura F . 2015. Coinfection with “ Rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolotimonae” and Rickettsia conorii in a human patient: a challenge for molecular diagnosis tools. J Clin Microbiol 53 : 3057 3062.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
32. Raczniak GA,, Kato C,, Chung IH,, Austin A,, McQuiston JH,, Weis E,, Levy C,, Carvalho MG,, Mitchell A,, Bjork A,, Regan JJ . 2014. Case report: co-infection of Rickettsia rickettsii and Streptococcus pyogenes: is fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever underdiagnosed? Am J Trop Med Hyg 91 : 1154 1155.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
33. Znazen A,, Khrouf F,, Elleuch N,, Lahiani D,, Marrekchi C,, M’Ghirbi Y,, Ben JM,, Bouattour A,, Hammami A . 2013. Multispacer typing of Rickettsia isolates from humans and ticks in Tunisia revealing new genotypes. Parasit Vectors 6 : 367. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
34. Shpynov S,, Fournier PE,, Rudakov N,, Raoult D . 2003. Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae” in Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected in Russia. Ann N Y Acad Sci 990 : 162 172.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
35. Shpynov SN,, Rudakov NV,, Fournier PE,, Raoult D . 2005. Detection of a new species of Rickettsiae in the ticks of Ixodes persulcatus in Russia. Med Parazitol (Mosk) ( 2) : 6 9. [In Russian.]
36. Jia N,, Zheng YC,, Jiang JF,, Ma L,, Cao WC . 2013. Human infection with Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae. N Engl J Med 369 : 1178 1180.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
37. Katargina O,, Geller J,, Ivanova A,, Varv K,, Tefanova V,, Vene S,, Lundkvist A,, Golovljova I . 2015. Detection and identification of Rickettsia species in Ixodes tick populations from Estonia. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 6 : 689 694.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
38. Igolkina YP,, Rar VA,, Yakimenko VV,, Malkova MG,, Tancev AK,, Tikunov AY,, Epikhina TI,, Tikunova NV . 2015. Genetic variability of Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes persulcatus/Ixodes trianguliceps sympatric areas from Western Siberia, Russia: identification of a new Candidatus Rickettsia species. Infect Genet Evol 34 : 88 93.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
39. Spolidorio MG,, Labruna MB,, Mantovani E,, Brandao PE,, Richtzenhain LJ,, Yoshinari NH . 2010. Novel spotted fever group Rickettsiosis, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 16 : 521 523.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
40. Sabatini GS,, Pinter A,, Nieri-Bastos FA,, Marcili A,, Labruna MB . 2010. Survey of ticks ( Acari: Ixodidae) and their rickettsia in an Atlantic rain forest reserve in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. J Med Entomol 47 : 913 916.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
41. Medeiros AP,, Souza AP,, Moura AB,, Lavina MS,, Bellato V,, Sartor AA,, Nieri-Bastos FA,, Richtzenhain LJ,, Labruna MB . 2011. Spotted fever group Rickettsia infecting ticks ( Acari: Ixodidae) in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 106 : 926 930.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
42. Szabó MP,, Pinter A,, Labruna MB . 2013. Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in Brazil. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 3 : 27. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
43. Barbieri AR,, Filho JM,, Nieri-Bastos FA,, Souza JC Jr,, Szabo MP,, Labruna MB . 2014. Epidemiology of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in a spotted fever-endemic area of southern Brazil. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 5 : 848 853.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
44. Londono AF,, Diaz FJ,, Valbuena G,, Gazi M,, Labruna MB,, Hidalgo M,, Mattar S,, Contreras V,, Rodas JD . 2014. Infection of Amblyomma ovale by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, Colombia. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 5 : 672 675.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
45. Monje LD,, Nava S,, Eberhardt AT,, Correa AI,, Guglielmone AA,, Beldomenico PM . 2015. Molecular detection of the human pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in Amblyomma dubitatum ticks from Argentina. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 15 : 167 169.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
46. Dumler JS,, Barbet AF,, Bekker CP,, Dasch GA,, Palmer GH,, Ray SC,, Rikihisa Y,, Rurangirwa FR . 2001. Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and ‘HGE agent’ as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51 : 2145 2165.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
47. Friedman CS,, Andree KB,, Beauchamp KA,, Moore JD,, Robbins TT,, Shields JD,, Hedrick RP . 2000. Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis’, a newly described pathogen of abalone, Haliotis spp., along the west coast of North America. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50 : 847 855.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
48. Kawahara M,, Rikihisa Y,, Isogai E,, Takahashi M,, Misumi H,, Suto C,, Shibata S,, Zhang C,, Tsuji M . 2004. Ultrastructure and phylogenetic analysis of ‘ Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis’ in the family Anaplasmataceae, isolated from wild rats and found in Ixodes ovatus ticks. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54 : 1837 1843.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
49. Silaghi C,, Beck R,, Oteo JA,, Pfeffer M,, Sprong H . 2015. Neoehrlichiosis: an emerging tick-borne zoonosis caused by Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis. Exp Appl Acarol 68 : 279 297.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
50. Rar V,, Golovljova I . 2011. Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and “ Candidatus Neoehrlichia” bacteria: pathogenicity, biodiversity, and molecular genetic characteristics, a review. Infect Genet Evol 11 : 1842 1861.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
51. Atif FA . 2015. Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum: Rickettsiales pathogens of veterinary and public health significance. Parasitol Res 114 : 3941 3957.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
52. Rikihisa Y . 2015. Molecular pathogenesis of Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection. Annu Rev Microbiol 69 : 283 304.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
53. Dahlgren FS,, Heitman KN,, Behravesh CB . 2015. Undetermined human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United States, 2008-2012: a catch-all for passive surveillance. Am J Trop Med Hyg pii:15-0691.
54. Kocan KM,, de la Fuente J,, Cabezas-Cruz A . 2015. The genus Anaplasma: new challenges after reclassification. Rev Sci Tech 34 : 577 586.[CrossRef]
55. Ismail N,, Bloch KC,, McBride JW . 2010. Human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. Clin Lab Med 30 : 261 292.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
56. Heitman KN,, Dahlgren FS,, Drexler NA,, Massung RF,, Behravesh CB . 2015. Increasing incidence of ehrlichiosis in the United States: a summary of national surveillance of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii infections in the United States, 2008-2012. Am J Trop Med Hyg 94 : 52 60.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
57. Perez M,, Rikihisa Y,, Wen B . 1996. Ehrlichia canis-like agent isolated from a man in Venezuela: antigenic and genetic characterization. J Clin Microbiol 34 : 2133 2139.[PubMed]
58. Perez M,, Bodor M,, Zhang C,, Xiong Q,, Rikihisa Y . 2006. Human infection with Ehrlichia canis accompanied by clinical signs in Venezuela. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1078 : 110 117.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
59. Allsopp BA . 2015. Heartwater: Ehrlichia ruminantium infection. Rev Sci Tech 34 : 557 568.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
60. Allsopp MT,, Louw M,, Meyer EC . 2005. Ehrlichia ruminantium: an emerging human pathogen. S Afr Med J 95 : 541. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
61. Chochlakis D,, Ioannou I,, Tselentis Y,, Psaroulaki A . 2010. Human anaplasmosis and Anaplasma ovis variant. Emerg Infect Dis 16 : 1031 1032.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
62. Hosseini-Vasoukolaei N,, Oshaghi MA,, Shayan P,, Vatandoost H,, Babamahmoudi F,, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR,, Telmadarraiy Z,, Mohtarami F . 2014. Anaplasma infection in ticks, livestock and human in Ghaemshahr, Mazandaran province, Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis 8 : 204 211.
63. Arraga-Alvarado C,, Montero-Ojeda M,, Bernardoni A,, Anderson BE,, Parra O . 1996. Human ehrlichiosis: report of the 1st case in Venezuela. Invest Clin 37 : 35 49. [In Spanish.][PubMed]
64. Arraga-Alvarado C,, Palmar M,, Parra O,, Salas P . 1999. Fine structural characterisation of a Rickettsia-like organism in human platelets from patients with symptoms of ehrlichiosis. J Med Microbiol 48 : 991 997.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
65. Breitschwerdt EB,, Hegarty BC,, Qurollo BA,, Saito TB,, Maggi RG,, Blanton LS,, Bouyer DH . 2014. Intravascular persistence of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia ewingii DNA in the blood of a dog and two family members. Parasit Vectors 7 : 298. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
66. Maggi RG,, Mascarelli PE,, Havenga LN,, Naidoo V,, Breitschwerdt EB . 2013. Co-infection with Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum in a veterinarian. Parasit Vectors 6 : 103. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
67. Reeves WK,, Loftis AD,, Nicholson WL,, Czarkowski AG . 2008. The first report of human illness associated with the Panola Mountain Ehrlichia species: a case report. J Med Case Rep 2 : 139. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
68. Johnson DK,, Schiffman EK,, Davis JP,, Neitzel DF,, Sloan LM,, Nicholson WL,, Fritsche TR,, Steward CR,, Ray JA,, Miller TK,, Feist MA,, Uphoff TS,, Franson JJ,, Livermore AL,, Deedon AK,, Theel ES,, Pritt BS . 2015. Human infection with Ehrlichia muris-like pathogen, United States, 2007-2013. Emerg Infect Dis 21 : 1794 1799.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
69. Li H,, Zheng YC,, Ma L,, Jia N,, Jiang BG,, Jiang RR,, Huo QB,, Wang YW,, Liu HB,, Chu YL,, Song YD,, Yao NN,, Sun T,, Zeng FY,, Dumler JS,, Jiang JF,, Cao WC . 2015. Human infection with a novel tick-borne Anaplasma species in China: a surveillance study. Lancet Infect Dis 15 : 663 670.[CrossRef]
70. Wenneras C . 2015. Infections with the tick-borne bacterium Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis. Clin Microbiol Infect 21 : 621 630.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
71. Eremeeva ME,, Oliveira A,, Robinson JB,, Ribakova N,, Tokarevich NK,, Dasch GA . 2006. Prevalence of bacterial agents in Ixodes persulcatus ticks from the Vologda province of Russia. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1078 : 291 298.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
72. Rar VA,, Fomenko NV,, Dobrotvorsky AK,, Livanova NN,, Rudakova SA,, Fedorov EG,, Astanin VB,, Morozova OV . 2005. Tickborne pathogen detection, Western Siberia, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis 11 : 1708 1715.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
73. Spitalská E,, Boldis V,, Kostanová Z,, Kocianová E,, Stefanidesová K . 2008. Incidence of various tick-borne microorganisms in rodents and ticks of central Slovakia. Acta Virol 52 : 175 179.[PubMed]
74. Castillo CG,, Eremeeva ME,, Paskewitz SM,, Sloan LM,, Lee X,, Irwin WE,, Tonsberg S,, Pritt BS . 2015. Detection of human pathogenic Ehrlichia muris-like agent in Peromyscus leucopus . Ticks Tick Borne Dis 6 : 155 157.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
75. Schouls LM,, Van De Pol I,, Rijpkema SG,, Schot CS . 1999. Detection and identification of ehrlichia, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Bartonella species in Dutch Ixodes ricinus ticks. J Clin Microbiol 37 : 2215 2222.[PubMed]
76. Alekseev AN,, Dubinina HV,, Van De Pol I,, Schouls LM . 2001. Identification of Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ticks in the Baltic regions of Russia. J Clin Microbiol 39 : 2237 2242.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
77. Pan H,, Liu S,, Ma Y,, Tong S,, Sun Y . 2003. Ehrlichia-like organism gene found in small mammals in the suburban district of Guangzhou of China. Ann N Y Acad Sci 990 : 107 111.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
78. Lommano E,, Bertaiola L,, Dupasquier C,, Gern L . 2012. Infections and coinfections of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks by emerging zoonotic pathogens in Western Switzerland. Appl Environ Microbiol 78 : 4606 4612.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
79. Potkonjak A,, Gutierrez R,, Savic S,, Vracar V,, Nachum-Biala Y,, Jurisic A,, Kleinerman G,, Rojas A,, Petrovic A,, Baneth G,, Harrus S . 2016. Molecular detection of emerging tick-borne pathogens in Vojvodina, Serbia. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 7 : 199 203.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
80. Sanogo YO,, Parola P,, Shpynov S,, Camicas JL,, Brouqui P,, Caruso G,, Raoult D . 2003. Genetic diversity of bacterial agents detected in ticks removed from asymptomatic patients in northeastern Italy. Ann N Y Acad Sci 990 : 182 190.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
81. Silaghi C,, Woll D,, Mahling M,, Pfister K,, Pfeffer M . 2012. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in rodents in an area with sympatric existence of the hard ticks Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus, Germany. Parasit Vectors 5 : 285. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
82. Venclikova K,, Mendel J,, Betasova L,, Blazejova H,, Jedlickova P,, Strakova P,, Hubalek Z,, Rudolf I . 2016. Neglected tick-borne pathogens in the Czech Republic, 2011-2014. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 7 : 107 112.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
83. Von Loewenich FD,, Stumpf G,, Baumgarten BU,, Röllinghoff M,, Dumler JS,, Bogdan C . 2003. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Germany: evidence from serological studies, tick analyses, and a case of equine ehrlichiosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 990 : 116 117.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
84. Movila A,, Alekseev AN,, Dubinina HV,, Toderas I . 2013. Detection of tick-borne pathogens in ticks from migratory birds in the Baltic region of Russia. Med Vet Entomol 27 : 113 117.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
85. Fehr JS,, Bloemberg GV,, Ritter C,, Hombach M,, Lüscher TF,, Weber R,, Keller PM . 2010. Septicemia caused by tick-borne bacterial pathogen Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis. Emerg Infect Dis 16 : 1127 1129.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
86. Li H,, Jiang JF,, Liu W,, Zheng YC,, Huo QB,, Tang K,, Zuo SY,, Liu K,, Jiang BG,, Yang H,, Cao WC . 2012. Human infection with Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, China. Emerg Infect Dis 18 : 1636 1639.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
87. Maurer FP,, Keller PM,, Beuret C,, Joha C,, Achermann Y,, Gubler J,, Bircher D,, Karrer U,, Fehr J,, Zimmerli L,, Bloemberg GV . 2013. Close geographic association of human neoehrlichiosis and tick populations carrying “ Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” in eastern Switzerland. J Clin Microbiol 51 : 169 176.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
88. Pekova S,, Vydra J,, Kabickova H,, Frankova S,, Haugvicova R,, Mazal O,, Cmejla R,, Hardekopf DW,, Jancuskova T,, Kozak T . 2011. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis infection identified in 2 hematooncologic patients: benefit of molecular techniques for rare pathogen detection. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 69 : 266 270.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
89. von Loewenich FD,, Geissdorfer W,, Disque C,, Matten J,, Schett G,, Sakka SG,, Bogdan C . 2010. Detection of “ Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” in two patients with severe febrile illnesses: evidence for a European sequence variant. J Clin Microbiol 48 : 2630 2635.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
90. Diniz PP,, Schulz BS,, Hartmann K,, Breitschwerdt EB . 2011. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” infection in a dog from Germany. J Clin Microbiol 49 : 2059 2062.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
91. Moniuszko A,, Dunaj J,, Czupryna P,, Zajkowska J,, Pancewicz S . 2015. Neoehrlichiosis—a new tick-borne disease: is there a threat in Poland? Przegl Epidemiol 69 : 23 26, 131–133.[PubMed]
92. Grankvist A,, Moore ER,, Svensson SL,, Pekova S,, Bogdan C,, Geissdorfer W,, Grip-Linden J,, Brandstrom K,, Marsal J,, Andreasson K,, Lewerin C,, Welinder-Olsson C,, Wenneras C . 2015. Multilocus sequence analysis of clinical “ Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” strains from Europe. J Clin Microbiol 53 : 3126 3132.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
93. Welc-Faleciak R,, Sinski E,, Kowalec M,, Zajkowska J,, Pancewicz SA . 2014. Asymptomatic “ Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” infections in immunocompetent humans. J Clin Microbiol 52 : 3072 3074.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
94. Derdakova M,, Vaclav R,, Pangracova-Blanarova L,, Selyemova D,, Koci J,, Walder G,, Spitalska E . 2014. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and its co-circulation with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus ticks across ecologically different habitats of Central Europe. Parasit Vectors 7 : 160. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
95. Hornok S,, Meli ML,, Gonczi E,, Hofmann-Lehmann R . 2013. First evidence of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Hungary. Parasit Vectors 6 : 267. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
96. Jahfari S,, Fonville M,, Hengeveld P,, Reusken C,, Scholte EJ,, Takken W,, Heyman P,, Medlock JM,, Heylen D,, Kleve J,, Sprong H . 2012. Prevalence of Neoehrlichia mikurensis in ticks and rodents from North-west Europe. Parasit Vectors 5 : 74. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
97. Szekeres S,, Claudia CE,, Rigo K,, Majoros G,, Jahfari S,, Sprong H,, Foldvari G . 2015. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in natural rodent and tick communities in Southern Hungary. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 6 : 111 116.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
98. Labbe SL,, Tolf C,, Larsson S,, Wilhelmsson P,, Salaneck E,, Jaenson TG,, Lindgren PE,, Olsen B,, Waldenstrom J . 2015. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in ticks from migrating birds in Sweden. PLoS One 10 : e0133250. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133250. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
99. Földvári G,, Jahfari S,, Rigó K,, Jablonszky M,, Szekeres S,, Majoros G,, Tóth M,, Molnár V,, Coipan EC,, Sprong H . 2014. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in urban hedgehogs. Emerg Infect Dis 20 : 496 498.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
100. Stanek G,, Wormser GP,, Gray J,, Strle F . 2012. Lyme borreliosis. Lancet 379 : 461 473.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
101. Wagemakers A,, Staarink PJ,, Sprong H,, Hovius JW . 2015. Borrelia miyamotoi: a widespread tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete. Trends Parasitol 31 : 260 269.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
102. Koedel U,, Fingerle V,, Pfister HW . 2015. Lyme neuroborreliosis: epidemiology, diagnosis and management. Nat Rev Neurol 11 : 446 456.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
103. Schutzer SE,, Fraser-Liggett CM,, Qiu WG,, Kraiczy P,, Mongodin EF,, Dunn JJ,, Luft BJ,, Casjens SR . 2012. Whole-genome sequences of Borrelia bissettii, Borrelia valaisiana, and Borrelia spielmanii . J Bacteriol 194 : 545 546.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
104. Gugliotta JL,, Goethert HK,, Berardi VP,, Telford SR III . 2013. Meningoencephalitis from Borrelia miyamotoi in an immunocompromised patient. N Engl J Med 368 : 240 245.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
105. Fukunaga M,, Takahashi Y,, Tsuruta Y,, Matsushita O,, Ralph D,, McClelland M,, Nakao M . 1995. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of Borrelia miyamotoi sp. nov., isolated from the ixodid tick Ixodes persulcatus, the vector for Lyme disease in Japan. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45 : 804 810.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
106. Fotso FA,, Angelakis E,, Mouffok N,, Drancourt M,, Raoult D . 2015. Blood-borne Candidatus Borrelia algerica in a patient with prolonged fever in Oran, Algeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93 : 1070 1073.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
107. Kumsa B,, Socolovschi C,, Raoult D,, Parola P . 2015. New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 6 : 401 407.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
108. Trape JF,, Diatta G,, Arnathau C,, Bitam I,, Sarih M,, Belghyti D,, Bouattour A,, Elguero E,, Vial L,, Mane Y,, Balde C,, Prugnolle F,, Chauvancy G,, Mahe G,, Granjon L,, Duplantier JM,, Durand P,, Renaud F . 2013. The epidemiology and geographic distribution of relapsing fever borreliosis in West and North Africa, with a review of the Ornithodoros erraticus complex ( Acari: Ixodida). PLoS One 8 : e78473. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078473. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
109. Mitani H,, Talbert A,, Fukunaga M . 2004. New World relapsing fever Borrelia found in Ornithodoros porcinus ticks in central Tanzania. Microbiol Immunol 48 : 501 505.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
110. James AM,, Liveris D,, Wormser GP,, Schwartz I,, Montecalvo MA,, Johnson BJ . 2001. Borrelia lonestari infection after a bite by an Amblyomma americanum tick. J Infect Dis 183 : 1810 1814.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
111. Rich SM,, Armstrong PM,, Smith RD,, Telford SR III . 2001. Lone star tick-infecting borreliae are most closely related to the agent of bovine borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol 39 : 494 497.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
112. McCoy BN,, Maiga O,, Schwan TG . 2014. Detection of Borrelia theileri in Rhipicephalus geigyi from Mali. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 5 : 401 403.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
113. Barbour AG,, Bunikis J,, Travinsky B,, Hoen AG,, Diuk-Wasser MA,, Fish D,, Tsao JI . 2009. Niche partitioning of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi in the same tick vector and mammalian reservoir species. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81 : 1120 1131.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
114. Scoles GA,, Papero M,, Beati L,, Fish D . 2001. A relapsing fever group spirochete transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 1 : 21 34.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
115. Fraenkel CJ,, Garpmo U,, Berglund J . 2002. Determination of novel Borrelia genospecies in Swedish Ixodes ricinus ticks. J Clin Microbiol 40 : 3308 3312.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
116. Hamer SA,, Hickling GJ,, Keith R,, Sidge JL,, Walker ED,, Tsao JI . 2012. Associations of passerine birds, rabbits, and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia andersonii in Michigan, U.S.A. Parasit Vectors 5 : 231. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
117. Mun J,, Eisen RJ,, Eisen L,, Lane RS . 2006. Detection of a Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato relapsing-fever group spirochete from Ixodes pacificus in California. J Med Entomol 43 : 120 123.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
118. Krause PJ,, Fish D,, Narasimhan S,, Barbour AG . 2015. Borrelia miyamotoi infection in nature and in humans. Clin Microbiol Infect 21 : 631 639.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
119. Crowder CD,, Carolan HE,, Rounds MA,, Honig V,, Mothes B,, Haag H,, Nolte O,, Luft BJ,, Grubhoffer L,, Ecker DJ,, Schutzer SE,, Eshoo MW . 2014. Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ticks in Europe and the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 20 : 1678 1682.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
120. DiBernardo A,, Cote T,, Ogden NH,, Lindsay LR . 2014. The prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi infection, and co-infections with other Borrelia spp. in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in Canada. Parasit Vectors 7 : 183. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
121. Richter D,, Schlee DB,, Matuschka FR . 2003. Relapsing fever-like spirochetes infecting European vector tick of Lyme disease agent. Emerg Infect Dis 9 : 697 701.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
122. Pichon B,, Rogers M,, Egan D,, Gray J . 2005. Blood-meal analysis for the identification of reservoir hosts of tick-borne pathogens in Ireland. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 5 : 172 180.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
123. Cochez C,, Heyman P,, Heylen D,, Fonville M,, Hengeveld P,, Takken W,, Simons L,, Sprong H . 2015. The presence of Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, in questing Ixodes ricinus in Belgium and in The Netherlands. Zoonoses Public Health 62 : 331 333.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
124. Geller J,, Nazarova L,, Katargina O,, Jarvekulg L,, Fomenko N,, Golovljova I . 2012. Detection and genetic characterization of relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in Estonian ticks. PLoS One 7 : e51914. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051914. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
125. Kiewra D,, Stanczak J,, Richter M . 2014. Ixodes ricinus ticks ( Acari, Ixodidae) as a vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Borrelia miyamotoi in Lower Silesia, Poland: preliminary study. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 5 : 892 897.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
126. Vayssier-Taussat M,, Moutailler S,, Michelet L,, Devillers E,, Bonnet S,, Cheval J,, Hebert C,, Eloit M . 2013. Next generation sequencing uncovers unexpected bacterial pathogens in ticks in western Europe. PLoS One 8 : e81439. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081439. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
127. Michelet L,, Delannoy S,, Devillers E,, Umhang G,, Aspan A,, Juremalm M,, Chirico J,, van der Wal FJ,, Sprong H,, Boye Pihl TP,, Klitgaard K,, Bødker R,, Fach P,, Moutailler S . 2014. High-throughput screening of tick-borne pathogens in Europe. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 4 : 103. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
128. Hansford KM,, Fonville M,, Jahfari S,, Sprong H,, Medlock JM . 2015. Borrelia miyamotoi in host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks in England. Epidemiol Infect 143 : 1079 1087.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
129. Szekeres S,, Coipan EC,, Rigo K,, Majoros G,, Jahfari S,, Sprong H,, Foldvari G . 2015. Eco-epidemiology of Borrelia miyamotoi and Lyme borreliosis spirochetes in a popular hunting and recreational forest area in Hungary. Parasit Vectors 8 : 309. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
130. Kjelland V,, Rollum R,, Korslund L,, Slettan A,, Tveitnes D . 2015. Borrelia miyamotoi is widespread in Ixodes ricinus ticks in southern Norway. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 6 : 516 521.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
131. Chowdri HR,, Gugliotta JL,, Berardi VP,, Goethert HK,, Molloy PJ,, Sterling SL,, Telford SR . 2013. Borrelia miyamotoi infection presenting as human granulocytic anaplasmosis: a case report. Ann Intern Med 159 : 21 27.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
132. Hovius JW,, de Wever B,, Sohne M,, Brouwer MC,, Coumou J,, Wagemakers A,, Oei A,, Knol H,, Narasimhan S,, Hodiamont CJ,, Jahfari S,, Pals ST,, Horlings HM,, Fikrig E,, Sprong H,, van Oers MH . 2013. A case of meningoencephalitis by the relapsing fever spirochaete Borrelia miyamotoi in Europe. Lancet 382 : 658. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
133. Krause PJ,, Narasimhan S,, Wormser GP,, Rollend L,, Fikrig E,, Lepore T,, Barbour A,, Fish D . 2013. Human Borrelia miyamotoi infection in the United States. N Engl J Med 368 : 291 293.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
134. Telford SR III,, Goethert HK,, Molloy PJ,, Berardi VP,, Chowdri HR,, Gugliotta JL,, Lepore TJ . 2015. Borrelia miyamotoi disease: neither lyme disease nor relapsing fever. Clin Lab Med 35 : 867 882.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
135. Lee K,, Takano A,, Taylor K,, Sashika M,, Shimozuru M,, Konnai S,, Kawabata H,, Tsubota T . 2014. A relapsing fever group Borrelia sp. similar to Borrelia lonestari found among wild sika deer ( Cervus nippon yesoensis) and Haemaphysalis spp. ticks in Hokkaido, Japan. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 5 : 841 847.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
136. Paddock CD,, Denison AM,, Lash RR,, Liu L,, Bollweg BC,, Dahlgren FS,, Kanamura CT,, Angerami RN,, Pereira dos Santos FC,, Brasil MR,, Karpathy SE . 2014. Phylogeography of Rickettsia rickettsii genotypes associated with fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg 91 : 589 597.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
137. Sentausa E,, El Karkouri K,, Michelle C,, Caputo A,, Raoult D,, Fournier PE . 2014. Genome sequence of Rickettsia tamurae, a recently detected human pathogen in Japan. Genome Announc 2 : e00838-14. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00838-14. [CrossRef]


Generic image for table

Tick-borne spotted fever group agents of human diseases and new data published in the last 2 years

Citation: Kernif T, Leulmi H, Raoult D, Parola P. 2016. Emerging Tick-Borne Bacterial Pathogens, p 295-310. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0012-2016

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error