Chapter 18 : Invasive Infections with Nontyphoidal in Sub-Saharan Africa

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Worldwide, infection typically causes gastroenteritis and rarely causes invasive infections of normally sterile sites. A well-known exception is enteric fever (invasive infection caused by serotypes Typhi, Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B, or Paratyphi C), a syndrome of acute febrile illness, often with abdominal pain, headache, and other manifestations. However, nontyphoidal (NTS) serotypes can also cause invasive infections, which often present as sepsis rather than as typical enteric fever ( ). Vulnerable populations, such as infants, young children, and immunocompromised people of any age, are at risk. Invasive NTS infections in Africa cause an enormous burden of illness—Africa is estimated to account for more than half of the 3.4 million invasive NTS infections ( )—and these infections are often devastating, with a mortality rate estimated at 20% in African settings ( ), even with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Although invasive NTS infection has been recognized for decades as an important cause of invasive bacterial infection in sub-Saharan Africa, until recently it received relatively little attention ( ). However, this is changing, with increasing attention from the scientific community and from both governmental and nongovernmental organizations focused on understanding the sources of these infections and developing effective tools for prevention ( ).

Citation: Mahon B, Fields P. 2016. Invasive Infections with Nontyphoidal in Sub-Saharan Africa, p 341-357. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0015-2016
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