Chapter 20 : Emerging Fungal Infections in the Pacific Northwest: The Unrecognized Burden and Geographic Range of and

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Emerging Fungal Infections in the Pacific Northwest: The Unrecognized Burden and Geographic Range of and , Page 1 of 2

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Fungal infections present a real challenge to public health, as they are ubiquitous in the environment and are not passed from human to human or generally transmitted by a vector, making exposure impossible to completely prevent. New opportunistic fungal pathogens are emerging in highly immunosuppressed (transplant) patients. These patient groups are highly susceptible to infections, and it is not unexpected that we find newly emerging infections. However, there are fungi that are known to be specific to certain geographic regions (often referred to as endemic) which are themselves emerging in new geographic areas and are not associated with immunosuppressed patients. Two of these such fungi are in the Southwest United States and , with most cases being recognized in Southern California. When regional or endemic diseases are encountered outside of their traditional geographic boundaries, especially in nontravelers, diagnosis can be delayed, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. These two fungi have recently emerged in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States.

Citation: Lockhart S, McCotter O, Chiller T. 2016. Emerging Fungal Infections in the Pacific Northwest: The Unrecognized Burden and Geographic Range of and , p 375-384. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0016-2016
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Figure 1

Areas where coccidioidomycosis is known and suspected to be endemic in the United States and Mexico ( ). The map depicts approximate areas where in known to live or suspected to live based on studies from the late 1940s and early 1950s and from documented outbreak locations.

Citation: Lockhart S, McCotter O, Chiller T. 2016. Emerging Fungal Infections in the Pacific Northwest: The Unrecognized Burden and Geographic Range of and , p 375-384. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0016-2016
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