Chapter 5 : The Emergence of Enterovirus-D68

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Enteroviruses are some of the most common human viral pathogens. Although infections are often asymptomatic, enteroviruses are capable of causing a wide spectrum of illness. They cause mild and self-limited, often febrile illness, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, conjunctivitis, pleurodynia, hepatitis, myocarditis, sepsis, meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis ( ). Disease can be particularly severe in neonates and the immuncompromised ( ). Historically, enteroviruses have been uncommonly associated with severe respiratory disease ( ).

Citation: Messacar K, Abzug M, Dominguez S. 2016. The Emergence of Enterovirus-D68, p 105-119. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0018-2016
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Figure 1

Analysis of 606 EV-D68 VP1 sequences from the U.S. outbreak, August to November 2014. Neighbor-joining analysis (MEGA 6.0). Comparison of U.S. 2014 EV-D68 strains with other 2014 strains identified internationally and with EV-D68 strains circulating prior to 2014. Neighbor-joining tree (MEGA 6). Pink shading indicates EV-D68 strains circulating prior to 2014. Red circles indicate strains of EV-D68 identified in respiratory specimens from patients who developed AFM. Molecular epidemiology of Enterovirus-D68 associated with a nationwide outbreak of severe respiratory illness, United States, 2014. Abstract, 31st Clinical Virology Symposium, 2015, Daytona Beach, FL. Used with permission from the authors at the CDC.

Citation: Messacar K, Abzug M, Dominguez S. 2016. The Emergence of Enterovirus-D68, p 105-119. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0018-2016
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Figure 2

Number of visits for respiratory illness to the Children’s Hospital Colorado emergency department requiring hospital admission and the cases of acute flaccid myelitis during the 2014 EV-D68 outbreak. Visits with a chief complaint of respiratory symptoms requiring hospital admission from the week ending 2 August 2014 (week 31) to that ending 25 October 2014 (week 43) compared with the same timeframe for 2012–2013 and the timing of the cases of acute flaccid myelitis. Reprinted from reference , with permission.

Citation: Messacar K, Abzug M, Dominguez S. 2016. The Emergence of Enterovirus-D68, p 105-119. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0018-2016
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Enterovirus-D68 respiratory disease: highlights of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management from the 2014 North American outbreak

Citation: Messacar K, Abzug M, Dominguez S. 2016. The Emergence of Enterovirus-D68, p 105-119. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0018-2016
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Acute flaccid myelitis potentially associated with enterovirus-D68: highlights of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management from the 2014 North American outbreak

Citation: Messacar K, Abzug M, Dominguez S. 2016. The Emergence of Enterovirus-D68, p 105-119. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0018-2016

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