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Chapter 8 : Non-Human Primate Models of Tuberculosis

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Abstract:

Among the animal models of tuberculosis (TB), the non-human primates (NHPs), particularly rhesus macaques () and cynomolgus macaques (), share the greatest anatomical and physiological similarities with humans. Macaques are highly susceptible to infection and manifest the complete spectrum of clinical and pathological manifestations of TB as seen in humans. Therefore, the macaque models have been used extensively for investigating the pathogenesis of infection and for preclinical testing of drugs and vaccines against TB. This review focuses on published major studies that exemplify how the rhesus and cynomolgus macaques have enhanced and may continue to advance global efforts in TB research.

Citation: Peña J, Ho W. 2017. Non-Human Primate Models of Tuberculosis, p 163-176. In Jacobs, Jr. W, McShane H, Mizrahi V, Orme I (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0007-2016
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Figure 1

“Golden Age” of TB research using rhesus macaques. This timeline illustrates major studies of experimental infection in Indian rhesus macaques during the so-called “Golden Age” from the 1960s to 1970s ( ). Events are organized chronologically by year of publication. Thus, the 10-year study by Good et al. ( ) actually began before the first reported investigation in 1966. The location of the experiments (in red) and the first/corresponding author (in blue) are indicated as well. BCG, bacillus Calmette-Guérin; BPRC, Biomedical Primate Research Center; Hazleton Laboratories (former organization purchased by Covance Inc.); , intracutaneous; , intramuscular; , intratracheal; , intravenous; ; NBL, Naval Biological Laboratories; NPRC, National Primate Research Center; PPD, purified protein derivative; , subcutaneous; UC, University of California.

Citation: Peña J, Ho W. 2017. Non-Human Primate Models of Tuberculosis, p 163-176. In Jacobs, Jr. W, McShane H, Mizrahi V, Orme I (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0007-2016
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Twenty-first century TB research using rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. This is a summary timeline of important studies of experimental infection in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques from 1996 to 2017. Only one study ( ) was published before 2001.

Citation: Peña J, Ho W. 2017. Non-Human Primate Models of Tuberculosis, p 163-176. In Jacobs, Jr. W, McShane H, Mizrahi V, Orme I (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0007-2016
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Tables

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Table 1

Comparison of TB in humans versus rhesus and cynomolgus macaques

Citation: Peña J, Ho W. 2017. Non-Human Primate Models of Tuberculosis, p 163-176. In Jacobs, Jr. W, McShane H, Mizrahi V, Orme I (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0007-2016
Generic image for table
Table 2

TB studies using both rhesus macaques and cynomolgus macaques

Citation: Peña J, Ho W. 2017. Non-Human Primate Models of Tuberculosis, p 163-176. In Jacobs, Jr. W, McShane H, Mizrahi V, Orme I (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0007-2016
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Table 3

TB studies using rhesus macaques

Citation: Peña J, Ho W. 2017. Non-Human Primate Models of Tuberculosis, p 163-176. In Jacobs, Jr. W, McShane H, Mizrahi V, Orme I (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0007-2016
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Table 4

TB studies using cynomolgus macaques

Citation: Peña J, Ho W. 2017. Non-Human Primate Models of Tuberculosis, p 163-176. In Jacobs, Jr. W, McShane H, Mizrahi V, Orme I (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0007-2016
Generic image for table
Table 5

Novel TB vaccine models using macaques

Citation: Peña J, Ho W. 2017. Non-Human Primate Models of Tuberculosis, p 163-176. In Jacobs, Jr. W, McShane H, Mizrahi V, Orme I (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0007-2016

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