Chapter 2 : Six Key Traits of Fungi: Their Evolutionary Origins and Genetic Bases

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The fungal lineage is one of the three large eukaryotic lineages that dominate terrestrial ecosystems. They share a common ancestor with animals in the eukaryotic supergroup Opisthokonta and have a deeper common ancestry with plants, yet several phenotypes such as morphological, physiological, or nutritional traits make them unique among all living organisms. This article provides an overview of some of the most important fungal traits, how they evolve, and what major genes and gene families contribute to their development. The traits highlighted here represent just a sample of the characteristics that have evolved in fungi, including polarized multicellular growth, fruiting body development, dimorphism, secondary metabolism, wood decay, and mycorrhizae. However, a great deal of other important traits also underlie the evolution of the taxonomically and phenotypically hyperdiverse fungal kingdom, which could fill up a volume on its own. After reviewing the evolution of these six well-studied traits in fungi, we discuss how the recurrent evolution of phenotypic similarity, that is, convergent evolution in the broad sense, has shaped their phylogenetic distribution in extant species.

Citation: Nagy L, Tóth R, Kiss E, Slot J, Gácser A, Kovács G. 2017. Six Key Traits of Fungi: Their Evolutionary Origins and Genetic Bases, p 35-56. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0036-2016
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Figure 1

Overview of the phylogenetic distribution of the traits presented in this article. Phylogeny of the major fungal groups and the phylogenetic distribution of the traits discussed in this article. Tree modified and redrawn from MycoCosm (http://genome.jgi.doe.gov/programs/fungi/index.jsf). Thick branches denote well-known relationships, while thin branches mark uncertainties in our understanding of fungal relationships. Presence or absence of a given trait is highlighted by black or white shading, respectively. Gray shading denotes rare or not fully developed states of the given trait, while blue denotes the secondary partial loss of multicellular growth in yeasts. The evolution of hyphae from unicellular ancestors (left, ; photo courtesy of Don Barr, http://www.bsu.edu/classes/ruch/msa/barr/4-15.jpg). Hyphae evolved in several groups, including the Monoblepharidomycetes (middle, sp.; [from reference ]) and the crown fungi (top right, mycelium growing on sawdust). Also shown are hyphal and yeast-like colonies of the dimorphic fungus (bottom right). Detailed view of the major orders, their wood-rotting characteristics, and the distribution of agaricoid fruiting body morphologies of the Agaricomycetes. Brown and beige represent brown and white rot lineages, respectively, whereas empty rectangles denote groups that do not degrade wood (Wallemiomycetes, Tremellomycetes) or cause an uncharacterized type of wood decay or mycorrhiza (Sebacinales and Cantharellales). Examples of typical white (, top) and brown (, bottom) rot Basidiomycota. Examples of the diversity of fruiting body morphologies in the Agaricomycetes, including from left to right, resupinate (); auricularioid, jelly fungi (); club and coral fungi (); puffballs (); and agaricoid morphologies ( sp). Photos: L. Nagy unless stated otherwise.

Citation: Nagy L, Tóth R, Kiss E, Slot J, Gácser A, Kovács G. 2017. Six Key Traits of Fungi: Their Evolutionary Origins and Genetic Bases, p 35-56. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0036-2016
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Figure 2

Secondary metabolites produced by fungi. HC toxin is a nonribosomal peptide virulence factor produced by plant pathogens such as the Northern corn leaf spot fungus, . Gibberellic acid is a diterpene-derived plant growth hormone produced by some spp. (e.g., ), which leads to growth defects in grass seedlings. Usnic acid is a common polyketide secondary metabolite thought to protect against biotic and abiotic stress in many lichens. Aflatoxin B1 is a highly carcinogenic polyketide produced by molds that spoils grain and peanut harvests. Psilocybin is a hallucinogenic indole alkaloid produced by a variety of mushrooms. Alpha amanitin is a deadly peptide alkaloid that inhibits RNA polymerase II, produced by diverse mushroom-forming fungi.

Citation: Nagy L, Tóth R, Kiss E, Slot J, Gácser A, Kovács G. 2017. Six Key Traits of Fungi: Their Evolutionary Origins and Genetic Bases, p 35-56. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0036-2016
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