Chapter 37 : Fungal Plant Pathogenesis Mediated by Effectors

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The interactions between fungi and plants encompass a spectrum of ecologies ranging from saprotrophy (growth on dead plant material) through pathogenesis (growth of the fungus accompanied by disease on the plant) to symbiosis (growth of the fungus with growth enhancement of the plant). We consider pathogenesis in this article and the key roles played by a range of pathogen-encoded molecules that have collectively become known as effectors.

Citation: de Wit P, Testa A, Oliver R. 2017. Fungal Plant Pathogenesis Mediated by Effectors, p 767-785. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0021-2016
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Figure 1

Typical penetration, feeding, and reproductive structures associated with three contrasting fungal pathogens. Barley powdery mildew, f.sp. (courtesy C. Ge). Epiphytic hyphae penetrating through the epidermis and the finger-like haustoria in the epidermal cell. Conidiophores bearing abundant conidia. Wheat septoria nodorum blotch, (courtesy K. Rybak). Epiphytic hyphae penetrating via hyphopodia (arrows) or through stomata. A green fluorescent protein-expressing strain under epifluorescence. The arrow shows a pycnidium containing abundant pycnidia. Tomato leaf mold, (Courtesy JC and PdW). Penetration of a stoma by adventitious (runner) hyphae. Growth of hyphae around tomato mesophyll cells. Conidiophores bearing abundant conidia on the underside of an otherwise healthy tomato leaflet.

Citation: de Wit P, Testa A, Oliver R. 2017. Fungal Plant Pathogenesis Mediated by Effectors, p 767-785. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0021-2016
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Figure 2

Interactions of fungal effectors with targets in plant host cells in biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic diseases. The fungal cell interacts with the host cell via the yellow space, which represents either the extrahaustorial, matrix surrounding the haustorium, or the apoplast. Effectors from a range of fungi are presented in yellow, and their plant targets in green. Additional information is provided in Table 1 . Adapted from reference .

Citation: de Wit P, Testa A, Oliver R. 2017. Fungal Plant Pathogenesis Mediated by Effectors, p 767-785. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0021-2016
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Table 1

Effectors from obligate biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic fungal pathogens whose intrinsic function, host target, or matching resistance gene is known

Citation: de Wit P, Testa A, Oliver R. 2017. Fungal Plant Pathogenesis Mediated by Effectors, p 767-785. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0021-2016

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