Chapter 40 : The Mycobiome: Impact on Health and Disease States

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Research efforts by mycologists over the past few years finally established the fungal community and its previously overlooked members as crucial components of the microbiome. It is now undeniable that the commensal fungal microorganisms, alongside the other components of the microbiota, play a central role in association with the human host. Ongoing research is describing the fungal community and is providing new insights into biological mechanisms by which multidirectional interactions between the microbiome, their genomes (metagenome), metabolites (metabolome), and the human host ultimately affect health and/or disease states.

Citation: El-Jurdi N, Ghannoum M. 2017. The Mycobiome: Impact on Health and Disease States, p 845-854. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0045-2016
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Figure 1

Schema showing potential interactions between bacteria, fungi, and the host in the gut in Crohn’s disease (CD). Inter- and intrakingdom interactions impact the host immune system in the setting of CD, resulting in increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., Th17 cytokines) under the influence of enteric pathogens and immunomodulatory components of biofilms (e.g., fungal β-glucans, bacterial lipopolysaccharides), causing increased oxidative damage and apoptotic cell death. Additionally, microbial-induced production of mucolytic enzymes may lead to barrier dysfunction, resulting in tissue damage and lesion formation. Interactions between fungi, bacteria, and the host in the gut of CD patients, showing an increase in the levels of , , and . Biofilm formation by gut microbiota can influence host response to microbial dysbiosis ( ).

Citation: El-Jurdi N, Ghannoum M. 2017. The Mycobiome: Impact on Health and Disease States, p 845-854. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0045-2016
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