Chapter 47 : Nematode-Trapping Fungi

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There are about 700 species of taxonomically diverse fungi that are be able to attack living nematodes (juveniles, adults, and eggs) and use them as a nutrient source ( ). The most important genera include , , , , , , , and ( ). Among these nematophagous fungi, only a few species are obligate parasites of nematodes, but the majority are facultative saprophytes ( ). Based on the mechanisms by which they attack nematodes, these nematophagous fungi are usually divided into four general groups: (i) nematode-trapping fungi that use specialized trapping structures differentiated from hyphae; (ii) endoparasitic fungi that use their spores; (iii) the opportunistic fungi that invade or colonize nematode eggs, females, or cysts with their hyphal tips; and (iv) toxin-producing fungi that immobilize nematodes before invasion ( ). Nematophagous fungi are important natural enemies of nematodes in soil ecosystems. In recent decades, environmental and health concerns over the use of chemical nematicides have greatly increased the demand for the development of biological control agents in plant protection. The reason for the growing interest in nematophagous fungi is mostly their potential as biocontrol agents against plant- and animal-parasitic nematodes. So far, a substantial number of myconematocides have been developed worldwide ( ).

Citation: Jiang X, Xiang M, Liu X. 2017. Nematode-Trapping Fungi, p 963-974. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0022-2016
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Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Structures of traps in nematode-trapping fungi. Adhesive networks of . Bar, 20 μm. Constricting rings of . Bar, 20 μm. Adhesive knobs and nonconstricting rings of . Bar, 20 μm. Nematode trapped by . Bar, 40 μm. Adhesive columns of . Bar, 20 μm.

Citation: Jiang X, Xiang M, Liu X. 2017. Nematode-Trapping Fungi, p 963-974. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0022-2016
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Figure 2

Phylogeny of carnivorous Orbiliomycetes constructed by RAxML using five protein-coding genes. The bootstrap supports are marked on the branch. Trapping devices are drawn on the left.

Citation: Jiang X, Xiang M, Liu X. 2017. Nematode-Trapping Fungi, p 963-974. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0022-2016
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