Chapter 50 : Necrotrophic Mycoparasites and Their Genomes

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Mycoparasitism is a lifestyle where a living fungus (host or prey) is parasitized by and acts as a nutrient source of another fungus (mycoparasite or predator). Mycoparasitic interactions are common among fungi and, similar to plant pathogens, comprise both biotrophic as well as necrotrophic relationships. Biotrophic mycoparasites obtain their nutrition from living fungal host hyphae, with which they can live in a balanced relationship for extended stages of their life cycles, and usually show a narrow host range ( ). Because of their nature, however, only few species are studied in detail and applied as biocontrol agents. Examples are (Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina), a natural enemy of powdery mildews, whose genome sequence has recently been released, as well as haustorial biotrophs from the Zygomycota ( ). In contrast to biotrophs, necrotrophic mycoparasites are more destructive and often rather unspecialized ( ). They usually have wide host ranges, often comprising fungal plant pathogens, and kill their fungal prey by invasion and secretion of damaging molecules followed by feeding on the released nutrients ( ). These traits render these fungi useful in agriculture for the biological control of plant diseases.

Citation: Karlsson M, Atanasova L, Jensen D, Zeilinger S. 2017. Necrotrophic Mycoparasites and Their Genomes, p 1005-1026. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0016-2016
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Figure 1

Interaction between hyphae of the mycoparasite and the fungal plant pathogen . Before attack of (expressing cytoplasmic GFP) ( ) by , the apical cell wall extends quickly and is only weakly stained with Congo red, a chitin-specific red fluorescent dye (arrows). Mycoparasitic attack induces tip growth arrest in the prey hyphae, leading to tip swelling and increased chitin deposition in the apical cell wall (arrows). Tip lysis of the prey hyphae results in cytoplasmic leakage (asterisks and inset) and use as nutrient substrate by the mycoparasite. GFP, green fluorescent protein. Scale bars: 20 μm (reprinted from [ ]).

Citation: Karlsson M, Atanasova L, Jensen D, Zeilinger S. 2017. Necrotrophic Mycoparasites and Their Genomes, p 1005-1026. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0016-2016
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Table 1

Genome sizes and gene numbers of mycoparasites in the Hypocreales order

Citation: Karlsson M, Atanasova L, Jensen D, Zeilinger S. 2017. Necrotrophic Mycoparasites and Their Genomes, p 1005-1026. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0016-2016
Generic image for table
Table 2

Predicted number of glycoside hydrolase family 18 genes in mycoparasitic and nonmycoparasitic ascomycete fungi

Citation: Karlsson M, Atanasova L, Jensen D, Zeilinger S. 2017. Necrotrophic Mycoparasites and Their Genomes, p 1005-1026. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0016-2016