Chapter 6 : Nuts and Grains: Microbiology and Preharvest Contamination Risks

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Almonds, walnuts, and cashews are the major tree nuts produced in the world. The United States is the largest producer of tree nuts ( ). Peanuts, also known as groundnuts, are produced largely in China, followed by India ( ). Almonds are the major nuts produced by the United States, followed by peanuts, walnuts, and pistachios in this order ( ). According to the 2014–2015 Global Statistical Review and world nut and dried fruit map, the world’s tree nut production increased by 5.4% compared to the previous season ( ). By definition, nuts can be divided into several categories, including drupes (e g., almonds, coconuts, pecans, pistachios, walnuts), legumes (e.g., peanuts), nuts (e.g., acorns, chestnuts, hazelnuts), and seeds (e.g., brazil nuts, cashews, pumpkin, pine nuts, sesame, sunflower) ( ). Nuts are consumed as a whole or as an ingredient in confectionary, bakery, and snack products. Nuts can be consumed raw or can be processed by thermal treatments such as oil roasting, dry roasting, blanching, and others.

Citation: Brar P, Danyluk M. 2018. Nuts and Grains: Microbiology and Preharvest Contamination Risks, p 105-121. In Thakur S, Kniel K (ed), Preharvest Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0023-2018
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