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Chapter 8 : Water for Agriculture: the Convergence of Sustainability and Safety

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Abstract:

Undoubtedly, water is one of the world’s most precious commodities, and since the beginning of agriculture, irrigating crops and relocating water to hydrate livestock have been essential to sustain society. The first irrigation system is believed to have been a bucket ( ) carried back and forth from a river to irrigate plants. Today, the world’s most important use of water is for agriculture, more specifically for the production of crops and raising of livestock. In the United States 330 million acres of land are used for the production of food and other agricultural products ( ). In 2010 alone over 126 billion gallons of water were used for irrigation, livestock, and aquaculture production, accounting for a total of 37% of total water use in the United States ( ). Agriculture accounts for approximately 33% of total water use in Europe, and water use is more intensive in the southern parts of Europe, where 80% of total water consumption is for irrigation of crops ( ). According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, there will be a 55% increase in the demand for water by the year 2050 due to increases in manufacturing, thermal power, and domestic industries that will put water availability for agriculture at risk ( ).

Citation: Markland S, Ingram D, Kniel K, Sharma M. 2018. Water for Agriculture: the Convergence of Sustainability and Safety, p 143-157. In Thakur S, Kniel K (ed), Preharvest Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0014-2016
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Figures

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Figure 1

Estimated municipal effluent generated per day in the United States (billions of gallons/day). Adapted from the U.S. EPA 2012 Guidelines for Water Reuse ( ).

Citation: Markland S, Ingram D, Kniel K, Sharma M. 2018. Water for Agriculture: the Convergence of Sustainability and Safety, p 143-157. In Thakur S, Kniel K (ed), Preharvest Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0014-2016
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Figure 2

Reuse summaries of reclaimed water use in the United States. Adapted from the U.S. EPA 2012 Guidelines for Water Reuse ( ).

Citation: Markland S, Ingram D, Kniel K, Sharma M. 2018. Water for Agriculture: the Convergence of Sustainability and Safety, p 143-157. In Thakur S, Kniel K (ed), Preharvest Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0014-2016
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Figure 3

Percentage of U.S. states with specific regulations on agricultural reuse of water. Adapted from the U.S. EPA 2012 Guidelines for Water Reuse ( ).

Citation: Markland S, Ingram D, Kniel K, Sharma M. 2018. Water for Agriculture: the Convergence of Sustainability and Safety, p 143-157. In Thakur S, Kniel K (ed), Preharvest Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0014-2016
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Types of water reuse and water reuse terminology

Citation: Markland S, Ingram D, Kniel K, Sharma M. 2018. Water for Agriculture: the Convergence of Sustainability and Safety, p 143-157. In Thakur S, Kniel K (ed), Preharvest Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0014-2016
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

State-by-state microbial standards for irrigation of nonfood crops with reused water

Citation: Markland S, Ingram D, Kniel K, Sharma M. 2018. Water for Agriculture: the Convergence of Sustainability and Safety, p 143-157. In Thakur S, Kniel K (ed), Preharvest Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0014-2016

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