Chapter 13 : Enterococci and Their Interactions with the Intestinal Microbiome

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The genus comprises over 50 species that can be found in diverse environments, from the soil to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of animals and humans to the hospital environment ( ; http://www.bacterio.net/enterococcus.html). The first member of this Gram-positive genus was isolated in 1899 from a lethal case of endocarditis ( ). It was not until 1984 that enterococcal species were seen as genetically distinct from and assigned their own genus ( ). Enterococci are Gram-positive facultative anaerobes that exist in chains or pairs and do not form spores. They grow optimally at 35°C, hydrolyze esculin in the presence of 40% bile salts, and are catalase negative ( ). Enterococcal species can be distinguished by phenotypic tests that rely on strains’ ability to form acid in mannitol and sorbose broth and to hydrolyze arginine ( ).

Citation: Dubin K, Pamer E. 2018. Enterococci and Their Interactions with the Intestinal Microbiome, p 309-330. In Britton R, Cani P (ed), Bugs as Drugs. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0014-2016
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