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Chapter 17 : Experimental Epidemiology of Antibiotic Resistance: Looking for an Appropriate Animal Model System

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Abstract:

The problem of antibiotic resistance in hospital bacteria and the human community has been recognized by various organizations ( ) as one of the greatest challenges to public health, which calls into question the maintenance and progress of modern medicine ( ). This alarm is based on the inability to treat and prevent infections caused by microorganisms that are resistant to all therapeutic alternatives available. In recent years, there have been some unexpected circumstances that have acted synergistically and have worsened the problem, namely, (i) a general failure to discover new antimicrobials; (ii) the exponential development of antibiotic resistance in overcrowded countries with serious health deficits and the global spread of multiresistant bacteria; (iii) the invasion by resistant bacteria of ecosystems (surface water and sewage, soil, animals, and food) and, particularly, the invasion of human intestinal microbiota; and (iv) a pollution environment with high concentrations of antibiotics, metals, and biocides that favor the selection of multiresistant bacteria and their persistence. An estimated 25,000 people die each year in Europe and the United States from antibiotic resistance ( ).

Citation: Llop P, Latorre A, Moya A. 2019. Experimental Epidemiology of Antibiotic Resistance: Looking for an Appropriate Animal Model System, p 291-309. In Baquero F, Bouza E, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J, Coque T (ed), Microbial Transmission. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MTBP-0007-2016
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Figures

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Figure 1

Loss of weight and size in due to antibiotic treatment after 25 days. (A) Insect treated with chlortetracycline 1 mg/ml. (B) Insect not treated with antibiotics.

Citation: Llop P, Latorre A, Moya A. 2019. Experimental Epidemiology of Antibiotic Resistance: Looking for an Appropriate Animal Model System, p 291-309. In Baquero F, Bouza E, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J, Coque T (ed), Microbial Transmission. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MTBP-0007-2016
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Figure 2

Copy number of gene of genome in treated with chlortetracycline 10 mg/ml (A) and rifampicin 2 mg/ml (B). There is a strong reduction in the number of endosymbionts with chlortetracycline, whereas with rifampin at low dose no effect is observed. (C) Copy number of gene of genome in F1 progeny of treated with chlortetracycline 1 mg/ml.

Citation: Llop P, Latorre A, Moya A. 2019. Experimental Epidemiology of Antibiotic Resistance: Looking for an Appropriate Animal Model System, p 291-309. In Baquero F, Bouza E, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J, Coque T (ed), Microbial Transmission. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MTBP-0007-2016
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Figure 3

Percentage of genus abundance (>1.5%) from three wild females.

Citation: Llop P, Latorre A, Moya A. 2019. Experimental Epidemiology of Antibiotic Resistance: Looking for an Appropriate Animal Model System, p 291-309. In Baquero F, Bouza E, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J, Coque T (ed), Microbial Transmission. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MTBP-0007-2016
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Figure 4

Plasmid profiles of some of the isolates from the hindgut. V517 and PJB415, marker plasmids; Mλ, marker λ HindIII; V517, strain with plasmids used as markers; WB4, ; WB9, ; PJB415, plasmid marker 90 kb.

Citation: Llop P, Latorre A, Moya A. 2019. Experimental Epidemiology of Antibiotic Resistance: Looking for an Appropriate Animal Model System, p 291-309. In Baquero F, Bouza E, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J, Coque T (ed), Microbial Transmission. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MTBP-0007-2016
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Figure 5

Experimental model of transmission of information about antibiotic resistance using an experimental model system with the aim of simulating the evolution of antibiotic (AB) resistance genes in human communities mimicking hospital and urban environments.

Citation: Llop P, Latorre A, Moya A. 2019. Experimental Epidemiology of Antibiotic Resistance: Looking for an Appropriate Animal Model System, p 291-309. In Baquero F, Bouza E, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J, Coque T (ed), Microbial Transmission. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MTBP-0007-2016
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819743.chap17
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Antibiotic resistance genes found in the metagenomic analyses performed on three wild females

Citation: Llop P, Latorre A, Moya A. 2019. Experimental Epidemiology of Antibiotic Resistance: Looking for an Appropriate Animal Model System, p 291-309. In Baquero F, Bouza E, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J, Coque T (ed), Microbial Transmission. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MTBP-0007-2016
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Species identified and the antibiotics to which they show resistance after isolation of colonies belonging to the gut microbiota of 12 wild and 5 lab-reared individuals

Citation: Llop P, Latorre A, Moya A. 2019. Experimental Epidemiology of Antibiotic Resistance: Looking for an Appropriate Animal Model System, p 291-309. In Baquero F, Bouza E, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J, Coque T (ed), Microbial Transmission. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MTBP-0007-2016

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