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Chapter 11 : Antimicrobial Resistance in Species

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Abstract:

Currently, multidrug resistance is not a common feature encountered in species. However, as has been observed with other pathogens of importance to humans, species have the ability to rapidly develop resistance to any antimicrobial agent, a feature that represents an emerging and increasing threat to human and animal health. Isolates of have been reported with varying degrees of resistance to commonly used antibiotics, and the first multidrug-resistant isolate was identified in France in 1988. These isolates developed resistance through a number of well-known mechanisms, including target gene mutations, such as within genes encoding efflux pumps, together with the acquisition of mobile genetic elements. This article will focus, in particular, on describing the mechanisms that confer resistance in species to antibiotics, biocides, and heavy metals.

Citation: Luque-Sastre L, Arroyo C, Fox E, McMahon B, Bai L, Li F, Fanning S. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in Species, p 237-259. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0031-2017
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Figure 1

species maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA genes from all species. Values on branches represent bootstrap values based on 500 bootstrap replicates; bootstrap values >80% are not displayed. species are color coded according the new genera classification proposed by Orsi et al. ( ).

Citation: Luque-Sastre L, Arroyo C, Fox E, McMahon B, Bai L, Li F, Fanning S. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in Species, p 237-259. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0031-2017
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Figure 2

Transmission dynamics of listeriosis involving human and animal hosts. Potential transmission pathways of species are indicated by arrows, and vehicles are represented by colored boxes.

Citation: Luque-Sastre L, Arroyo C, Fox E, McMahon B, Bai L, Li F, Fanning S. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in Species, p 237-259. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0031-2017
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Figure 3

L. monocytogenes . (a) invades the host cells via a zipper mechanism, by the interaction of surface internalins InlA and InlB with the host cell surface receptors E-cadherin and Met, respectively. (b) escapes from the phagosome before the fusion with the lysosome occurs, by the action of the secreted proteins, the pore-forming toxin LLO, and phosphatidylinositide phospholipase C (PI-PLC). (c) may replicate in the cytosol, and (d) it spreads by actin polymerization, which propels the bacteria unidirectionally, (e) promoting cell-to-cell spreading of . (f) Rupture of the two-membrane vacuole is mainly mediated by the action of LLO and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC).

Citation: Luque-Sastre L, Arroyo C, Fox E, McMahon B, Bai L, Li F, Fanning S. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in Species, p 237-259. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0031-2017
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Figure 4

Heavy metal resistance operons in the strain ScottA. (A) Arsenic resistance operon. (B) cadmium resistance operon.

Citation: Luque-Sastre L, Arroyo C, Fox E, McMahon B, Bai L, Li F, Fanning S. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in Species, p 237-259. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0031-2017
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Figure 5

L. monocytogenes. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), the multidrug and toxic-compound extrusion (MATE) family, and the small multidrug resistance (SMR) family. Common examples of the individual proteins that form each class of efflux pump are shown.

Citation: Luque-Sastre L, Arroyo C, Fox E, McMahon B, Bai L, Li F, Fanning S. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in Species, p 237-259. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0031-2017
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

lineages and serotype distribution

Citation: Luque-Sastre L, Arroyo C, Fox E, McMahon B, Bai L, Li F, Fanning S. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in Species, p 237-259. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0031-2017
Generic image for table
Table 2

Mammals, birds, and other species from which species have been isolated

Citation: Luque-Sastre L, Arroyo C, Fox E, McMahon B, Bai L, Li F, Fanning S. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in Species, p 237-259. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0031-2017
Generic image for table
Table 3

species, hosts, and forms of disease

Citation: Luque-Sastre L, Arroyo C, Fox E, McMahon B, Bai L, Li F, Fanning S. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in Species, p 237-259. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0031-2017
Generic image for table
Table 4

Intrinsic or natural antibiotic susceptibility and resistance of species

Citation: Luque-Sastre L, Arroyo C, Fox E, McMahon B, Bai L, Li F, Fanning S. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in Species, p 237-259. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0031-2017
Generic image for table
Table 5

Multidrug efflux transporters characterzsed in

Citation: Luque-Sastre L, Arroyo C, Fox E, McMahon B, Bai L, Li F, Fanning S. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in Species, p 237-259. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0031-2017

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