Chapter 14 : Antimicrobial Resistance in spp.

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, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. According to data from the World Health Organization, the estimated incidence of gastroenteritis due to spp. in high-income countries is between 4.4 and 9.3 per 1,000 people ( ). Most infections are mild and self-limiting and may not require antimicrobial therapy; however, antibiotic treatment is required for severe or prolonged infections. In clinical settings, fluoroquinolones and macrolides are the drugs of choice to treat campylobacteriosis ( ), but in some cases, tetracyclines and gentamicin are used to treat systemic infection with ( ). In a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on antibiotic resistance threats in the United States in 2013, drug-resistant was listed under “microorganisms with a threat level of serious” (http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2013/pdf/ar-threats-2013-508.pdf). The CDC indicated that almost 24% of strains tested were resistant to ciprofloxacin (fluoroquinolone) or azithromycin (macrolide), indicating that approximately 310,000 infections are caused by drug-resistant each year in the United States. Although contaminated undercooked poultry meat is a main source of infection for human campylobacteriosis ( ), ruminant is also a significant contributor for foodborne illnesses ( ).

Citation: Shen Z, Wang Y, Zhang Q, Shen J. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in spp., p 317-330. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0013-2017
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Figure 1

Chromosomal organization and comparison of seven types (I to VII) of MDRGIs containing the (B) gene (modified from references ). (B) is in red, aminoglycoside resistance genes are in yellow, the streptothricin resistance gene () is in blue, the tetracycline resistance gene [(O)] is in purple, genes with predicted functions are in green, and genes coding hypothetical proteins are in white. The (O) gene is intact in types V and VI but is truncated in other types. The border genes of the MDRGIs are depicted by black box arrows. The gray shading indicates regions sharing more than 98% DNA identity. A representative strain for each type of MDRGI is indicated on the right side of the panel.

Citation: Shen Z, Wang Y, Zhang Q, Shen J. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in spp., p 317-330. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0013-2017
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