Chapter 21 : Antimicrobial Resistance in and spp. and Other Anaerobes

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Anaerobic bacteria are unable to grow in the presence of oxygen. However, most clinical isolates grow very well under anaerobic conditions. Anaerobes can be divided into two groups: strict anaerobes, which are killed by exposure to oxygen, and aerotolerant anaerobes, which can tolerate some exposure to oxygen. They colonize many anatomical sites of animals, most notably the oral cavity, the rumen, and the lower intestinal tract, where they are part of the microbiota. They have also been associated with bacteria-rich mucosal surfaces of the respiratory tract, urinary and genital tracts, and even the skin ( ). Only a small proportion of anaerobes can cause primary diseases, examples of which include spp. such as and , enterotoxigenic , , and some spp. Other anaerobes, such as , spp., spp., spp., some spp., spp., and spp., are considered mostly opportunistic pathogens. Their disease onsets usually require predisposing factors such as inoculation into a normally sterile site through local trauma or any other conditions that permit bacterial entry and colonization. Anaerobes are often associated with clinical conditions involving necrotic and suppurative lesions such as abscesses and cellulitis. These opportunist infections are frequently multiple and commonly involve mixtures of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, the former reducing the environment to allow the anaerobes to flourish. They are also considered a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes for other bacterial species ( ).

Citation: Archambault M, Rubin J. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in and spp. and Other Anaerobes, p 447-470. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0020-2017
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Table 1

Overview of the genes or the mutations in genes associated with acquired antimicrobial resistance so far identified in the different anaerobes of animal origin

Citation: Archambault M, Rubin J. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in and spp. and Other Anaerobes, p 447-470. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0020-2017
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Table 2

Proposed breakpoints for the interpretation of MICs

Citation: Archambault M, Rubin J. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in and spp. and Other Anaerobes, p 447-470. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0020-2017